FRHD 3150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Classical Conditioning, Junk Food

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 3150
Chapter 9
Changing the Control of a Behavior with Fading4/18/2013 2:50:00 PM
Fading: the gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that
controls a response to that the response occurs to a partially changed or completely
new stimulus
Involved in everyday situations where one person teaches a behavior to
another
Any situation where a stimulus exerts strong control over a response,
fading can be a useful procedure for transferring the control of that
response to some other stimulus
Fading procedures are used in many learning situations in programs with
persons with developmental disabilities including autism and very young
children
Errorless Discrimination training (Errorless Learning): Use of a fading procedure
to establish a stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur
Advantages over procedures involving trail and error
1. Errors consume valuable time
2. If an error occurs once, it tends to occur many times, even if it is being
extinguished
3. The nonreinforement that occurs when errors are being extinguished
often produces emotional side effects
Example of fading technique
-Can be used to teach tracing, copying and drawing shapes, numerals, and letters
of the alphabet
To draw a circle, teacher begins with large number of sheets with a
heavily dotted circle on each of them
Teacher places pencil in child’s hand and says, “Trace the circle”, then
guides child’s hand so that the pencil traces the circle by connecting the
dots
Immediately after this, the child receives reinforcer
After several trails, teacher fades out the pressure of her hand, and at the
end the teacher simply gives instructions, “Draw the circle”.
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
1. The Final Desired Stimulus
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Important so that the occurrence of the response to a particular stimulus
is maintained in the natural environment
2. The Starting Stimulus: A Prompt
Prompt: supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that
a described behavior will occur, but that is not the final desired stimulus to control
the behavior
Instructor Behaviors as Prompts
Physical Prompts: guiding the learning through touch
Eg. holding child’s hand while teaching them to walk
Gestural Prompts: certain motions that a teacher makes without touching the
student
Eg. Teacher extending hand in a palm-downward motion for children to
talk softly
Modeling Prompts: occur when the correct behavior is demonstrated
Eg. Swimming coach models the correct arm movements for the freestyle
stroke for young swimmers
Verbal Prompts: verbal hints or clues
Eg. Driving instructor tells student driver to “check over left shoulder
before pulling out of driveway”
Environmental Alterations as Prompts
Environmental prompts: rearranging the physical environment in a manner that will
evoke the desired behavior
Eg. putting fresh fruit in easy reach and junk food out of sight
Extra-Stimulus vs. Within-Stimulus Prompts
-Instructor-behavior prompts and environmental prompts can be further subdivided
into extra-stimulus prompts and within-stimulus prompts
-Extra-Stimulus Prompt: something that is added to the environment to make a
correct response more likely
Eg. When child wants to set utensils on table correctly, parent would point
to the appropriate location of each utensil as it was named and placed
(extra-stimulus instructor behavior prompts)
Within Stimulus Prompt: prompt is an alterations of the S D or the S A to make
their characteristics more noticeable and easier to discriminate
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Document Summary

Changing the control of a behavior with fading4/18/2013 2:50:00 pm. Fading: the gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls a response to that the response occurs to a partially changed or completely new stimulus. Involved in everyday situations where one person teaches a behavior to another. Any situation where a stimulus exerts strong control over a response, fading can be a useful procedure for transferring the control of that response to some other stimulus. Fading procedures are used in many learning situations in programs with persons with developmental disabilities including autism and very young children. Errorless discrimination training (errorless learning): use of a fading procedure to establish a stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur. If an error occurs once, it tends to occur many times, even if it is being extinguished. The nonreinforement that occurs when errors are being extinguished often produces emotional side effects.

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