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Chapter 29

FRHD 3150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 29: Laboratory Rat, Reciprocal Inhibition, Operant Conditioning Chamber

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 3150
Michelle Preyde

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Chapter 29
Historical Perspective and Ethical Issues 4/18/2013 3:52:00 PM
Ivan P. Pavlov (Pavlovian conditioning)
-Won Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1904
-Measuring the secretions of the salivary glands as well as stomach, pancreas and
small intestine glands
-Presentation of food to a dog produced a chain of digestive secretions beginning
with salivation
-Sight of smell of food and sounds of it being prepared produced digestive gland
secretion (basis for studying reflexes)
-Unconditional reflex: is unlearned or not conditional on any pairing process
(food-salivation reflex)
-Conditional reflex: is learned or conditional on a pairing process (tone-salivation
John B. Watson
-Advocated an alternative approach to “science of mind” (1913), and called it
-Argued that the most complex activities were due to Pavlovian conditioning
-Used Pavlovian conditioning of a fear response in an 11-month old infant
Child was not afraid of a white rat, and after pairing of the white rat with
loud noise, caused the infant to exhibit a conditioned reflex of fear to the
-During the next 20 years, no applications appears to have sustained impact on the
development of behavior modification as we know it today
Reciprocal Inhibition: if one group of muscles is stimulated, an antagonistic
muscle group will be inhibited, and vice versa
A general process acting throughout the nervous system
-Eliminated child’s fear reactions to a rabbit by gradually moving the rabbit closer
to the child over trials while the child was engaging in pleasurable activities
-Extended the principle of reciprocal inhibition to state that if a response that is
incompatible with a learned fear or anxiety can be made to occur to a stimulus that
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had been conditioned to produce that fear, then the stimulus will cease to elicit the
fear reaction
-Developed earliest behavioral treatment for specific phobias or intense irrational
fears (heights)
Systematic Desensitization: used relaxation responses to prevent a learned fear
or anxiety
B.F. Skinner
-First psychologist to make a clear distinction between behavior that is elicited by
stimuli (respondent) and behavior that is controlled by its consequences (operant)
-Lever that a laboratory rat could press and a mechanism for dispensing food
pellets to reinforce the rat’s lever pressing (Skinner Box)
Operant Conditioning: type of learning where behavior is modified by its
Behavioral Model of Abnormal Behavior: suggests that abnormal behavior is a
function of specifiable environmental causes and that it is possible to rearrange the
environment so that the behavior can be changed or improved
Medical Model of Abnormal Behavior: viewed abnormal behavior as a symptom
of an underlying disturbance in a personality mechanism with the implication that
one must treat the underlying personality disturbance through Freudian
Functional Analysis: the discovery of controlling variables for behavior by directly
assessing their effects on behavior
variables such as antecedents and consequences in the environment
Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations
-Much of the early history of behavior modification and behavior therapy clearly
falls within either the operant orientation or the Pavlovian-Wolpean Orientation
1. One major “mixture” was social learning theory, first outlined by Julian Rotter
2. Another “mixture” is cognitive behavior therapy
Albert Bandura
-One of the most influential of the social learning theorists
-His approach is the “social” in the sense that it places great emphasis on the social
context in which behavior is acquired and maintained
-Used basic principles of respondent and operant conditioning
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