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Chapter 2

FRHD 3400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: American Counseling Association, De-Identification, The Counselor

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 3400
Carol Anne Hendry

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Chapter 2: Ethics, Multicultural Competence, and the Positive Psychology and Wellness Approach
The Ethical Foundations of Counseling and Psychotherapy
o If you behave ethically and with intentionality, you can anticipate that the relationship
will proceed more smoothly and your client will be protected
o We need a sense of ethical practice, an awareness of their cultural backgrounds and an
emphasis on their positive strengths
Includes confidentiality and competence
o There is much diversity in all sessions
Ethics in the Helping Process
o All major helping professionals throughout the world have a code for ethical practice
These codes promote empowerment for both counselors and their clients
Aid in the helping process by:
Teaching and promoting the basics of ethical appropriate practice
Protecting clients by providing accountability
Serving as a mechanism to improve practice
Ethical codes can be summarized in the following statement:
Do o har to our liets; treat the resposil ith full aareess
of the soial otet of helpig
All ethical codes contain information on competence, informed consent,
confidentiality, and diversity.
Issues of advocacy, power and social justice are implicit in all codes, but
most explicitly in counseling, social work, and human services
o Competence
Competent counselors and psychotherapists need awareness, knowledge, skills,
and the ability to take appropriate action in the session.
The Aeria Couselig Assoiatio’s 2005 stateet o professioal
competence includes diversity
Boundaries of Competence. Counselors practice only within the
boundaries of their competence, based on their education, training,
supervised experience, state and national professional credentials, and
appropriate professional experience. Counselors will gain knowledge,
personal awareness, sensitivity, and skills pertinent to working with a
diverse client population.
In working with a client you need to constantly monitor whether or not you are
competent to counsel the individual on each issue presented
If a client demonstrates severe distress or presents an issue with which
you are uncomfortable, seek supervision
o Confidentiality
The Aeria Couselig Assoiatio’s 2005 ethial ode states:
Section B: Introduction. Counselors recognize that trust is the
cornerstone of the counseling relationship. Counselors aspire to earn
the trust of clients by creating an ongoing partnership, establishing and
upholding appropriate boundaries, and maintaining confidentiality.
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Counselors communicate the parameters of confidentiality in a
culturally competent manner.
Trust is built in your ability to keep confidences
Challenges to confidentiality:
Some states require you to inform parents before counseling a child,
and information must be shared if they ask
If issues of abuse should appear, you must inform the appropriate
managerial and legal authorities
If the client is a danger to their self or others, then rules of
confidentiality change; the issue of reporting such information needs to
be discussed with your supervisor
o HIPAA Privacy
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (1996)
Require the protection and confidential handling of protected health
Key elements of the Privacy Rule
The Privacy Rule applied to health plans, health care clearinghouses,
and to any health care provider who transmits medical information
proteted health iforatio is defied as all idiiduall idetifiale
health information held or transmitted by a covered entity or its
business associate, in any form or media, and is anything that identifies
a idiidual’s health are at a poit i tie.
de-idetified health iforatio. There are o restritios of the use
or disclosure of de-identified health information. To de-identify
information, a formal determination by a qualified statistician, or the
removal of specified identifiers of the individual and of the idiidual’s
relatives, household members, and employers
o Informed Consent
The Canadian Counseling Association (2007) approach to informed consent is
particularly clear:
B4. Cliet’s Right ad Ifored Coset. When counseling is initiated,
and throughout the counseling process as necessary, counselors
informed clients if the purposes, goals, techniques, procedures,
limitations, potential risks and benefits of services to be performed, and
other such pertinent information. Counselors make sure that clients
understand the implications of diagnosis, fees and fee collection
arrangements, record keeping, and limits of confidentiality. Clients have
the right to participate in the ongoing counseling plans, to refuse any
recommended services, and to advised of the consequences of such
The American Psychological Association (2010) stresses that psychologists
should inform clients if the counseling session is to be supervised:
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Standard 10.01 Informed Consent to Therapy. When the therapist is a
trainee and the legal responsibility for the treatment provided resides
with the supervisor, the client/patient, as part of the informed consent
procedure, is informed that the therapist is in training and is being
supervised and is given the name of the supervisor
In addition, the APA specifies:
Standard 4.03 Recording. Before recording the voices or images of
individuals to whom they provide services, psychologists obtain
permission from all such persons or their legal representatives
When you work with children, the ethical issues around informed consent
become especially important. Need parental permission before counseling a
child, and written records should be available upon request. The consent also
states that the child and the parents can remove their consent at any time.
o Power
The National Organization for Human Services (NOHS, 1996) comments on
power, a significant ethical issue that often receives insufficient attention
Power differentials occur in society
The client may begin counseling with perceived lesser power than the
o Awareness of and openness to talking about these issues help
you work toward a more egalitarian relationship with a client.
Gender differences is a great example.
You will encounter many situations in which institutional or cultural oppression
becomes part of the counseling relationship, even though you personally may
not have been involved in that oppression.
A gay person not feeling comfortable with a heterosexual counselor,
and so on.
Dual relationships occur when you have more than one relationship with a
AKA Conflict of Interest
If your client is a classmate or a friend, you are engaged in a dual
In the past, the ethical ideal was to avoid all dual relationships; however, the
ter itself has ultiple eaigs, so i the urret odes of ethis dual
relatioships are ot etioed.
Instead three relationships are mentioned:
o Sexual/romantic relationships
Banned because of damaging effects on the clients
o Nonprofessional relationships
o Professional role change
Social justice
o The National Association of Social Workers (2008) suggests that action beyond the
interview or session may be needed to address social justice issues.
o There are two major types of social justice action
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