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GEOG 1220 (40)

Textbook Notes.docx

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GEOG 1220
Lorne Bennett

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UNIT ONE 2/11/2013 1:16:00 PM Chapter 1: Renewable natural resources:  Sunlight  Wind energy  Wave energy  Geothermal energy Nonrenewable natural resources: Formed much slowly than we use them  Crude oil  Natural gas  Coal  Copper, aluminum, and other metals In between (so long as they are not overharvested):  Agricultural crops  Fresh water  Forest products  Soils Regeneration rates can be quite high Stock: the harvestable portion of the resource Stock-and-flow resources: The importance of the balance of harvesting/replenishing in their management FOUR SIGNIFICANT PERIODS OF SOCIETAL CHANGE  Increase in population Paleolithic period (Old stone age)  Human control of fire  Use of tools with stones to modify their environment Neolithic period (agricultural revolution)  Transition from nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a settled, agricultural way of life Industrial Revolution  Shift from rural life, animal-powered agriculture, and manufacturing by craftspeople to an urban society powered by fossil fuels  Life improved o Also marked the beginning of industrial-scale pollution and other environmental/social problems  Air quality declined (reliance on coal)  Water quality declined Medical-Technological Revolution  Advances in medicine and sanitation  Explosion of communication technologies  Shift to modern agricultural practices o Green Revolution  Allows people to live longer, healthier lives IPAT MODEL I = P * A * T  Total impact (I)  Population (P)  Affluence (A) (level of consumption)  Technology (T) Carrying capacity: A measure of the ability of a system to support life  When carrying capacity of the land (or water) system is exceeded: o Population of that species with decline or collapse o The system will be altered, damaged or depleted Tragedy of the Commons:  Resources that are open to unregulated exploitation inevitably become overused and, as a result, are damaged or depleted  Each individual withdraws whatever benefits are available from the common property as quickly as possible, until the resource becomes overused and depleted o Carrying capacity will be exceeded  Collapse 5 critical factors that determine the survival of civilizations:  climate change  hostile neighbors  trade partners  environmental problems  society’s response to environmental problems Who you are, where you live, what you do, your income, your gender, and your socioeconomic status can have a huge effect on how you perceive your environment, how you react to change, and what impact those changes may have on how you live your life Consumption of resources has risen even faster than our population growth  Rise of affluence has been positive to our development for humanity  However, more consumption increases the demand we make on the environment Sustainable development:  The use of renewable and nonrenewable resources in a manner that satisfies our current needs without compromising future availability of resources Environmental sustainability: Maintaining or restoring the quantity and quality of biophysical resources upon which humans depend Affected by:  Human changes to supply of natural resources  Human changes to quality of environment (litter)  Human changes to physical structure of environment (mining, agriculture)  Changes to biodiversity (invasive species)  Extreme events (oil spills etc.) Chapter 2: Attribute of the model’s components POPULATION  Size  Density (greater the density, greater the impact)  Distribution  Growth rate Attributes of the Model’s Components RESOURCES  Natural attributes o Character of the resource (determines what it is, where it is) o Supply  Human attributes o Demand o Use o Acquisition of that resource Attributes of the Model’s Components ENVIRONMENT  Abiotic environment  Biotic environment  “all resource attributes are affected by the population attributes, and ultimately this combination impacts on the environment to a greater or lesser extent Factors influencing population, resources and the environment  Per capita consumption  Public policy o Population o Resources o Environment  Technology o Population o Resources o Environment  Culture/religion  Externalities o “the environmental cost of producing or using an economic good or service which is not included in the market price of the good or service”  e.g. forest, air, water System:  A network of relationships among parts, elements, or components that interact with and influence on another through the exchange of energy, matter, or information o Receive inputs of both energy and matter and produce outputs of both  Open systems o Receive inputs and produce outputs of energy, but not matter  Closed systems  Matter cycles a
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