GEOG 1300 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Map Projection, Hydrosphere, Cryosphere
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GEOG 1300 Chapter 1
Spatial refers to the nature and character of physical spaces, its measurement and the distribution of
things within it.
5 important spatial themes: location, region, human- earth relationships, movement and place.
Location: Absolute and relative location on Earth, answers the question where
Region: Areas having uniform characteristics.
Human-Earth Relationships: Human and the environment: resources exploitation, hazard
Place: tangible and intangible living and nonliving characteristics that make each place unique.
No two places are the same.
Movement: Communication, movement, circulation, migration and diffusion across Earth’s
System: any ordered interrelated set of things and their attributes linked by flows of energy and matter,
as distinct from the surrounding environment outside the system.
Open systems: Inputs of energy and matter flow into the system and flow from the system.
Closed system: A system that is shut off from the surrounding environment so that it is self-
An example is photosynthesis
Earth’s Four Spheres
3 abiotic spheres (Atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere), 1 biotic sphere (biosphere
Atmosphere- thin, gaseous veil surrounding Earth, held to the planet by the force of gravity.
Combination of N2, O2, Ar, CO2, H2O
Hydrosphere-Earth’s waters exist in the atmosphere on the surface and in the crust near the
surface. The frozen part of the hydrosphere is known as the cryosphere
Lithosphere- Earth’s crust and a portion of the upper mantle directly below the crust.
Biosphere- the intricate interconnected web that links all organisms with their physical
Earth is known to be an oblate ellipsoid
Location and Time on Earth
Latitude is an angular distance north or south of the equator. Run east to west. Equator is 0
Tropic of Cancer- 23.5 north parallel, tropic of Capricorn- 23.5 south parallel.
Arctic Circle-66.5 North parallel, Antarctic Circle-66.5 South Parallel
Longitude is an angular distance east or east of a point on Earth’s surface. Run north to south.
Prime Meridian is 0.
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