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Chapter 2

GEOG 1300 Chapter 2 and 3a.docx

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University of Guelph
GEOG 1300
Tara Holland

GEOG 1300 Chapter 2 and 3a Chapter 2 The solar system, Sun, and Earth.  Earth’s orbit is elliptical. At perihelion (closest) on January 3. At aphelion (furthest) on July 4.  Solar Winds are responsible for the auroras. The Seasons  Seasonality refers both to the seasonal variation of the sun’s position above the horizon and changing day lengths during the year.  Seasonal variation is response to the sun’s altitude (angle between the horizon and the sun).  The sun’s declination is the latitude of the sub solar point. Reasons for the seasons  Revolution: Speed with Earth’s distance from the sun determines the time required for one complete Orbit around the sun.  Rotation: Turning of the Earth on its axis, reasons for day and night. Circle of illumination is the dividing line between day and night, intersects the equator. 1. Coriolis Effect- Deflection of air and water 2. Tides- water reacts to gravitational pull of sun and moon 3. Day and Night- variations of exposure to sunlight.  Tilt of the Earth’s axis: The tilt is 23.5; this is relative to the plane of the ecliptic. A plane that touches all points of Earth’s orbit. This leads to the North Star.  Axial Parallelism: remains in fixed alignment with Polaris throughout the year.  Sphericity- Uneven distribution of sunlight to the Earth’s Surface Annual March of the Seasons  Solstices- Sun’s perpendicular (vertical rays) hit 23.5 N or S 1. June Solstice- Summer in North, longest day of the year. June 20-21 2. December Solstice- Winter in N shortest day of the year. December 21-22
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