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Chapter 4

GEOG 1300 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Advection, Long Cold Winter, Dobson Unit


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1300
Professor
Tara Holland
Chapter
4

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GEOG 1300 Chapter 4
Energy Essentials
Solar Energy is distributed unevenly along Earth’s surface.
Transmission refers to the passage of shortwave and longwave energy input driving the Earth’s
atmosphere system.
Insolation is the single energy input driving the Earth-atmosphere system.
Scattering is when gas molecules redirect radiation, changing the direction of the light’s
movement without altering its wavelength.
o The shorter the wavelength, the great the scattering.
Diffuse radiation is when insolation is diffused by clouds and atmosphere and transmits to Earth.
Refraction is when the insolation transits subjecting it to a change in speed which also changes
its direction.
Reflection is when a portion of arriving energy is deflected back into space without being
absorbed or performing any work.
1. Albedo is the reflective quality of a surface.
Absorption is the assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one
form of energy to another.
Conduction is the molecule to molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a
substance.
Temperature between land and water bodies.
Convection is the transfer of energy from gases and liquids.
Atmospheric and oceanic circulation, air mass movements
Advection is the horizontal motion dominating.
Movement of wind from land to sea and back.
Adiabatic Processes
Adiabatic describes the warming and cooling rates for a parcel of expanding or compressing air.
Cooling- air rises, less pressure means less collisions lead to a drop in
temperature.
Warming- air descends; more pressure means more collisions leads to a rise in
temperature.
Latent Heat
The energy stored from water turning from liquid to gas.
The energy released from water turning from gas to liquid
Earth’s Energy budget
Based on 100 units of radiation from Sun
o 30 scattered/reflected, 50 pass through atmosphere, 20 directly.
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