GEOG 1300 Chapter 4
Solar Energy is distributed unevenly along Earth’s surface.
Transmission refers to the passage of shortwave and longwave energy input driving the Earth’s
Insolation is the single energy input driving the Earth-atmosphere system.
Scattering is when gas molecules redirect radiation, changing the direction of the light’s
movement without altering its wavelength.
o The shorter the wavelength, the great the scattering.
Diffuse radiation is when insolation is diffused by clouds and atmosphere and transmits to Earth.
Refraction is when the insolation transits subjecting it to a change in speed which also changes
Reflection is when a portion of arriving energy is deflected back into space without being
absorbed or performing any work.
1. Albedo is the reflective quality of a surface.
Absorption is the assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one
form of energy to another.
Conduction is the molecule to molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a
Temperature between land and water bodies.
Convection is the transfer of energy from gases and liquids.
Atmospheric and oceanic circulation, air mass movements
Advection is the horizontal motion dominating.
Movement of wind from land to sea and back.
Adiabatic describes the warming and cooling rates for a parcel of expanding or compressing air.
Cooling- air rises, less pressure means less collisions lead t