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Chapter 4

GEOG 1300 Chapter 4.docx

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GEOG 1300
Tara Holland

GEOG 1300 Chapter 4 Energy Essentials  Solar Energy is distributed unevenly along Earth’s surface.  Transmission refers to the passage of shortwave and longwave energy input driving the Earth’s atmosphere system.  Insolation is the single energy input driving the Earth-atmosphere system.  Scattering is when gas molecules redirect radiation, changing the direction of the light’s movement without altering its wavelength. o The shorter the wavelength, the great the scattering.  Diffuse radiation is when insolation is diffused by clouds and atmosphere and transmits to Earth.  Refraction is when the insolation transits subjecting it to a change in speed which also changes its direction.  Reflection is when a portion of arriving energy is deflected back into space without being absorbed or performing any work. 1. Albedo is the reflective quality of a surface.  Absorption is the assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of energy to another.  Conduction is the molecule to molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance.  Temperature between land and water bodies.  Convection is the transfer of energy from gases and liquids.  Atmospheric and oceanic circulation, air mass movements  Advection is the horizontal motion dominating.  Movement of wind from land to sea and back. Adiabatic Processes  Adiabatic describes the warming and cooling rates for a parcel of expanding or compressing air.  Cooling- air rises, less pressure means less collisions lead t
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