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Chapter 5

GEOG 1300 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Cyclogenesis, Jet Stream, Occluded Front

Course Code
GEOG 1300
John Lindsay

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Chapter 5: Global Climate and Weather
5.1 Introduction
Aeolian pertaining to the processes, Earth materials and landforms that involve the role of
5.2 General controls of global climates
Temperature inversion a reversal of the normal environmental temperature lapse rate; air
temperature increases with altitude
Slantwise convection convection (vertical rise in an air parcel) is inhibited when the prevailing
lapse rate is less than the appropriate adiabatic lapse rate. A poleward horizontal movement of
an air mass may bring the air parcel into an environment denser than itself, thereby allowing the
air parcel to rise through slantwise convection
5.3 The tropics and subtropics
Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) the zone where the north-east trade winds from the
northern hemisphere and the south-east trade winds from the southern hemisphere come
together over the equatorial region. This zone is characterized by cloud bands which illustrate
rising air yet it is not a continuous band around the Earth. It migrates northwards and
southwards across the equator with the seasons, so that it resides in the hemisphere which is
experiencing summer
Wind shear a change in wind speed or direction with altitude in the atmosphere
Monsoon a system of winds that switch direction from ocean-continent to continent-ocean
between summer and winter in response to the northerly and southerly movements of the ITCZ.
The characteristics are most apparent in India and South-East Asia; the jet stream reverses from
westerly to easterly, causing the north-east and south-west monsoon seasons that are
responsible for the majority of inter-annual climatic change in the region
Orographic pertaining to mountains
5.4 Mid- and high-latitude climates
Air mass an extensive body of air possessing relatively uniform conditions of temperature and
moisture that is in contact with the ground
Cyclogenesis a condition in which high-level air divergence is greater than low-level
convergence such that air is able to rise; low pressure
Anticyclogenesis a condition in which a zone of descending air results in high pressure at
ground level and air to circulate slowly outwards from the descending zone
Occluded front the process in which a cold front of a depression overtakes a warm front. It is
classified as warm or cold depending on whether the air ahead of the warm front is colder or
warmer than the air following the cold front
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