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GEOG 1300 (8)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Regional and local climates.docx

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Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1300
Professor
John Lindsay

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Chapter 6: Regional and local climates 6.2 Altitude and topography  Lapse rate – rate at which temperature decreases with altitudinal increase  Environmental lapse rate – the actual rate at which temperature falls with increasing altitude in the local atmosphere  Conditionally unstable – instability in the atmosphere that is conditional upon an air parcel becoming saturated, which leads to a shift from cooling via the dry adiabatic lapse rate to the saturated adiabatic lapse rate. This causes the air to become warmer than the surrounding air and ascend more rapidly, leading to the deep-ocean floor  Super-adiabatic – a term used for localized steep lapse rates that are greater than even the dry adiabatic lapse rate causing rapid local convection  Katabatic drainage – radiative cooling at night causes the air close to the ground to cool; this cooler air is slightly denser and slowly moves downslope to lower ground and into depressions. It is greatest in cloud-free and dry conditions with light winds (limited mechanical mixing of the air).  Fohn wind – the European equivalent of the Chinook wind  Chinook – a warm, dry local wind that blows east down the lee slopes of the Rocky Mountains. The wind is subject to warming by adiabatic compression on descent and is warmer in absolute terms at any given altitude than in its windward ascent  Bergeron process – the formation of precipitation described by the Bergeron-Findeison theory. Ice crystals fall from the upper part of a cloud, leading to aggregation of crystals and accretion of supercooled water. Ice crystals grow preferentially by sublimation at the expense of surrounding water droplets because the relative humidity above an ice surface is greater than a liquid surface and hence the saturation vapour pressure over water is greater than ice, causing a pressure gradient towards the ice  Feeder-seeder mechanism – a type of orographic enhancement of precipitation. Adiabatic cooling of air forced to rise over mountains causes saturation of water vapour and cloud formation. The
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