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GEOG 1350 (22)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2: Earthquakes

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GEOG 1350
Jaclyn Cockburn

CHAPTER 2 EarthquakesFocus hypocenter is the location of the initial rupture along the fault directly below the epicenter Seismologists people who study earthquakes Magnitude the amount of energy an earthquake releases Intensity the measure of the effects of a quake on people and structures Seismograph instrument that records earthquake ground motions Richter Scale quantifies the magnitude of local earthquakes as the logarithm to the base of 10 of the maximum signal wave amplitude recorded on a thenstandard seismogram at a distance of 100 km from the epicenter Moment Magnitude M used to measure earthquake size wy Done by an estimate of the area that ruptured along a fault plane during the quake the amount of movement or slippage along the fault and the rigidity of the rocks near the focus Joints and Faulting Deformation of the Earths crust Rockscrust can deformfolding Sometimes the crustrock deformation is brittleRock breaks JOINTSrock fractures and there is no offsetWeathering and erosion is often heightened along jointsFAULTrock fracturesand there is movement along that fracture Several types of faults Fault types Strikeslip faultshorizontal displacement Reverse Faultshangingwall has moved up relative to the footwall along the plane inclined at an angle steeper than 45 degrees Thrust Faults similar to reverse faults except the angle of the fault plane is 45 degrees or less Normal Fault a dipslip fault in which the hangingwall has moved downward relative to the footwall most geologists consider a fault to be active if it has moved during the past 11600 years and
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