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GEOG 2210 Chpt 5 Summary

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GEOG 2210
Ben Bradshaw

Environment and ResourcesCpt 5 Environmental Ethics The Price of Cheap MeatAround 80 of hogs in the US are raised in industrialscale factory farms all for industrial efficiency o factory farms intensive animalraising agricultural operations they attempt to maximize production by raising as many animals in as little space as possible can result in air water pollutionArgumentso FOR leaves room for other economic development activity price of meat is lower o AGAINST cruel to animals depeopling rural communities less family farms industrial intensification pollutionMost oppose bc they believe it is wrong that the animals are treated as capital and these actions are seen as ethically indefensible this is where ethics come into playEthics branch of philosophy dealing with morality or questions of rightwrong human action o What people ought to do and whyEnvironmental Justice principle stressing the need to equitable distribution of environmental goods ex clean air and environmental bads ex pollution bw people no matter their racegender etco Environmental INjustice dangerous conditions disproportionately proximate to minority communities Improving Nature From Biblical Tradition to John Locke Many environmental thinkers mentioned 2 different beliefs governing the relationship Western civilization has with the natural world1 Humans are separate from and superior to nature o dominion thesis from The Book of Genesis states humans are pinnacle of creation and are granted ethical free rein to use nature in a way deemed beneficial o Appear to say that dominating nature is the right thing to doo On the other hand stewardship is called for in the bible Stewardship taking responsibility for the property and fate of others stewardship of land and natural resources is often used in religious context such as caring for creation o Anthropocentrism ethical standpoint that views humans as central factor in considerations of rightwrong action in and toward nature2 Nature is only as valuable as it is useful to humans o Locke as a political libertarians believed government has a limited role it should function only as is necessary as to protect the natural freedoms of individual citizens o Freedom is the right to acquireposses maintain property wo possessions there is nothing to defend body included and therefore also labour o Believe nature it has little value using human labour can be turned into property therefore valuableUtilitarian ethical theory posits that the value of a good should be judged primarily by its usefulness to society usefulness is equated with maximizing happiness and minimizing suffering o Principle has 2 constraints on what qualifies just uses of nature1 A person cannot take more than they will use beforeit spoilsgoes to waste2 No person should appropriate more land than he can work Gifford Pinchot VS John Muir in Yosemite California Gifford Pinchot conservationist
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