Province of newfoundland and labrador is unlike any other part of canada, physical characteristics, history of settlement, entry into confederation, economy, and people. Known as the rock and only accessible by plane or boat (relatively isolated) Long history of exploration and settlement, revolving around the fish stocks (mainly cod) Land and waters involved nfl in territorial battles, concessions, and agreements. Labrador is very remote, influences on its settlement has been its resources, iron ore, hydroelectricity, forests, and recently nickel. Facilities like military airport and nato hq has contributed to settlement. Challenges: economic management coming from codfish, a single species of a single staple commodity (representing income) Former british colony faced many other challenges, including building a railway, persevering through depressions, and diversifying the economy. Joined canada in 1949, having positive and negative consequences. Confederation brought transfer payments and aid from federal government; in return nfl surrendered control of waters.