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GEOG 3050 Chapter Notes -List Of Belgrade Neighbourhoods And Suburbs, Social Ecology, Unitary Group

Course Code
GEOG 3050
Kate Parizeau

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Week 7 Rodgers
Dennis Rodgers -Living In the Shadow of Death: Gangs, Violence
and Social Order in Nicaragua 1996-2002
Could Argue shift in political economy of violence in LA post cold
o No longer stemming from ideological conflicts over nature of
pols but more ‘prosaic forms’ such as crime
o Crime isn't new, political violence not extinct -->violence in LA
has become democratized, not only resource of traditionally
New dynamics seen to be linked to regional crisis of
governance -->liberalization, weak democratization and
intensifying globalization undermined states and their
ability to command monopoly over use of violence
Epitomizes declining political authority and signals rising
social chaos
This article disagrees: far from embodying incipient anarchy, certain
manifestations of this violence can be conceived as modes of social
structuration in the face of wider processes of social and state
o in relation to most emblematic form of brutality in LA -youth
Case study of urban youth gang in Nicaragua or pandilla in capital,
Account of barrio Luis Fanor Hernandez pandilla
Crime in Contemporary Nicaragua
Longest running dictatorship in LA, Somoza dynasty
Streets peaceful during years of conflict, since peace streets have
become scenes of war
Crime levels risen in past 15 years with crimes against persons
between 1990 and 2003 rising by over 460 percent
o Official statistic (460%) must be treated with caution -->are
o 1 in 4 inhabitants of Managua victims of crime in previous four

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Sense of insecurity, manifest fear of leaving perceived safety of
home, people restricting themselves to a few fixed routes and
o Effect on local social organizations
o Traditional institutions of social solidarity such as extended
family have shattered (no body takes care of anybody else
anymore, lack of trust)
Gangs most likely perpetrators of crime by over 50 percent, and
over half of those arrested in 97 were young males (corresponds to
typical pandillero age, obvs not all gang members though)
Word pandilla denotes definite social institution, consisting of
variably sized group of male youths ranging in age from 7-23 who
engage in illicit and violent behaviour and who have a particular
territorial dynamic
o Associated with a specific urban neighborhood, larger ones
may have more than one and not all have one. Tend not to
dev in richer neighborhoods
o Socio-econ opportunities available to youth also affect gang
Pandillas can be traced back to 1940s, were small scare and
innocuous youth aggregations until early 90s when numbers
increased and became significantly violent
Police insist pandillas in decline, public opinion and media and
specific informants for case study suggest have increased (total
number of youth may be declining but although less pandilleros
more pandillas)
The Barrio Luis Fanor Hernandez pandilla 1996-97
100 youths, all male between 7 and 22. From rich and poor HH, no
stereotype deterinants
o Only element that affected membership was religious, no
evangelical protestants (contradictory to tentants of that
religion and church provides complete organizational
framework for members, alternative to gangs)
Neighbourhood gang subdivided into distinct age and geographical
subgroups of equal size f
o Operated seperately except in gang warfare and qualified
themselves as members of same gang and never fought each
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