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GEo 3050 Week 12 Cornelissen.docx

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University of Guelph
GEOG 3050
Kate Parizeau

Week 12 Cornelissen INTRODUCTION th · The organization of the 15 Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro demanded a huge investment in stadiums, security and infrastructure · Since they were candidates for the FIFA World Cup in 2014 and 2016 Olympic games, this event would be crucial in determining Rio’s capacity to host greater events later on · BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) the most important new economic forces in the 21 C · These country’s want to affirm themselves not only in the economic arena, but in terms of their global profile · The organization of a sport mega-event exemplifies their economic development but also allows for positive image-making in the context of media coverage and tourism experiences · Developing countries have increasingly sought major events by which to promote their countries on a global stage · PAPER: w\under what circumstances is sport mega-events organized in a BRIC country? What does such an event mean for the local population? · The placing of a major tournament in these countries is always accompanies by major concerns about their ability and capacity to organize the event o Security, infrastructure, meeting timetable deadlines · These nations are challenged by global perceptions and stereotypes · Must show that they can host an event of global significance, are able to stage one despite limited infrastructure, and present a positive experience for key stakeholders · Brazil à provides a window into key tensions associated with staging a sport mega-event in fast-developing nations · PAPER: how did Brazil and Rio want to present themselves in this Pan American Game? o Focus on the consequences of hosting the PAG both for the city of Rio and its diverse population groups before and during 2007 · PAPER: discusses how extreme social inequality provokes a confrontation of what might be described as ‘third’ and ‘first’ world persons · Brazil is a developing country, but there are some people who can afford a First World standard of living · In Rio there are many slums where millions of people struggle to live without any welfare assistance o Live near the wealthy and utilize the same public spaces that separate the favelas and the middle class · While Rio can host a major event like the PAG, Brazilian authorities were more than successful in constructing a wall dividing the daily life in the city o Poor and violent reality outside the wall · PAPER THESIS: The PAG of 2007 divided the city of Rio de Janeiro o On one side of the wall a First World space (games) o On the other is the Third World city continued, where nothing changed o The two world are separated by the walls around the stadia · Two surveys were conducted during the PAG one with the spectators inside the stadia and the other about the consequences of the event for local residents outside the stadia SPORT MEGA-EVENTS: RIO’S BID IN 2007 · A sport mega-event has 7 characteristics… o Cultural, commercial and sportive events of a large scale o Have dramatic character o They have a popular mall appeal o They have international significance o They have significant consequences for the host city or country o They provoke major media attention o They represent a discontinuity in the ordinary nature of sport championships · The host is therefore the center of international media attention for a short time o The organizers have the opportunity to present themselves, but they are also under pressure to guarantee perfect organization · Large amounts of money is needed à usually from public sources o Justification with arguments about the significant positive economic impact that their event will bring to the city · Environmental consequences of major sporting events, they take into consideration o Overcrowding, noise pollution, increased crime rates, ‘removal of undesirables’ · Citizens’ support throughout the country, not just in the host city, is always quite broad in terms of a mega-event · Rio as a ‘natural born sports city’ à beaches, mountains and parks offer a naturally beautiful leisure paradise · Problems… o Social inequalities, transport and sport facilities · ‘ Strategic Plan’ and ‘Social Agenda’ à promised to use the PAG to transform the city o Unrealistic, rather they created areas of excellence which were intended to be shown in the media o While hiding the less developed and impoverished areas of the city from the media’s gaze RIO DE JANEIRO: NATURAL-BORN SPORTS CITY · In spite of Rio’s growing social and criminal problems, its nature and unique beauty remains, and it continues to be the main tourist city in Brazil · For lots of people, especially politicians and sports managers, a mega- event is the perfect opportunity for Rio – a city which is ‘naturally passionate for sports’ – to show to the world its globalized face, open to anyone as a major tourist destination · Some believe that globalization has increased the difference between the First and Third Worlds o In a developing country rich and poor live side by side o The contrast is visible on a daily basis · Public money is used to build safe and beautiful areas perfectly able to host the tournament · Only people with enough money or the correct invitations have access to these precincts INSIDE THE STADIUMS: SPECTATORS AT THE 2007 GAMES · 1.3 million people need special attention and organization o Security is important · Crows management based on service and low or high-level policing o The police take care of the traffic outside the stadia while private security forces with less aggressive uniforms are inside the stadia · The National Force, the walls and x-ray scanners turned the competition arenas into fortresses o The border between ‘normal’ Rio de Janeiro and the event area · Spectators with tickets who passed the security measures entered a completely different world where there were no police or national forces anymore o They were attended by friendly service-volunteers, who showed the way into the modern stadium · All the stadium were either build or renovated to fit the conformist model proposed by Bale · Often the clean television image was more important than the atmosphere, which can be produced artificially in TV studios · The 2007 PAG attracted a specific kind of audience that cannot be easily compared with a normal Brazilian soccer crowd or any other local sporting event · Result from this study indicate that for the 2007 PAG a First World ‘city’ was built parallel to the ‘normal’ Rio de Janeiro o People who had enough money could pass through the walls guarded by National Force patrols and x-rays to enter a completely different world · The new stadiums were constructed according to international norms, which are based on the reality in Europe or the USA. It is no wonder that the people who had access liked them. Yet it
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