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Chapter 7

Chapter 7


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 3490
Professor
C.M
Chapter
7

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GEOG*3490 Chapter 7
Legislation for environmental protection
Intro
Interactions between tourism and the environment have become the concern of
governments, NGO’s, local communities, donor agencies and thee private sector.
These stakeholders will decide whether environmental impact is positive or negative.
The role of the government
Wide range of power over tourism developments but also have to prioritize
Hierarchy of national goals
Today there is more awareness surrounding environmental impacts and strategies to
reduce it
Some developing counties have issues with these strategies
Joan Martin Brown remarks, “The third world tells us you’re telling us not to do what
you did to achieve your high standard of living. What are you going to do for us?”
Wealth creation through the unrestricted use of natural resources is intensified
through globalization
International trade agreements have encouraged the process, notably:
GATT; General agreement on tariffs and trade
GATS; General agreement on trade I n services
Basic premise of GATS is free-market access and denial of any protectionist
measures
Opening up countries to unlimited foreign investment
7.1 shows the effects of a deregulated global economy
In The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) a chief traded his communities
rights to its forests for 25 years for some tools, a couple bags of sugar & salt,
and three schools and pharmacies.
The chief didn’t know one tree was worth $8,000 in the US
Governments are often reluctant to put any obstacles like environmental regulations
in the way of capital inflow
If X has environmental restrictions companies will often choose Y where
restrictions are more lax or don’t exist
The World Bank and IMF also restrict governments from allocating there money to
environmental protection because they are cutting costs for these governments who
are in debt
Policy and planning measures that national, regional, and local governments may
consider:
Protect areas through legislation: national or provincial parks. Eg World
heritage site
Implement land-use planning measures: zoning, carrying capacity analysis, and
limits of acceptable change (LAC).
Mandatory environmental impact analysis

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Encourage co-ordination between governments and the private sectors adopt
environmental management policies like environmental auditing and
management systems.
Protected Areas
Governments have the power to protect different destinations
United nations Environmental program (UNUP) & the World Tourism Organization
(1992) have produced classifications for these areas
The permitted use by humans varies, the most restricted being at the top of the list
(p.176)
Scientific reserve/Strict Nature Reserve
National Parks
Natural Monuments/ Natural Land Marks
Managed Nature Reserve/ Wildlife Sanctuary
Protected Landscapes
Resource Reserves
Naturally Biotic Area/ Anthropological Reserve
Multiple-use Management Area/ Managed Resources
The 1st National park was created at Yosemite, America in 1872
By the end of the 19th century national parks had been created in other countries as
well
Banff National park, 1887
Tongariro National park, 1894
MacCannel (1992) suggests that the formation of National parks affirms the power of
human’s over nature
Murphy (1985), The biggest threat to National parks today is tourism
National parks are not just the earths surface marine parks have also been
established to protect coral reefs
Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire Marine Park)
Seychelles (Saint Anne National Marine Park)
National Parks are important focal points for attracting international tourism
Box 7.3 Summary of Costs & Benefits
Benefits Costs
Protects landscape, wildlife, and ecological
community
Have to be carefully managed recreation &
tourism pose threats
People can experience nature National park status attracts tourists and
can lead to overcrowding
Provides jobs for people protecting &
conserving the environment rather then
destructive practices
Indigenous people can be excluded from
their territory to protect landscape and
wildlife
The convention for The World Heritage Sites was established in 1972 by UNESCO
The purpose is to protect sites containing significant cultural & natural heritage
The catalyst for its formation was the threat of flooding the Aswan High Dam
in Egypt put on the Abu Simbel Temples in 1959.
Today there are 830 WHS, 644 are cultural, 162 are natural, and the remaining
24 are considered mixed.
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Spatially diverse they are found in 138 different nations; they can be very
remote and some have living communities
A major down fall, like national parks, is that they are publicized and suffer threats
from tourism
Climate and urbanization also cause threats to WHS like Australia’s great coral reef
The awareness of the problems tourism may cause led to the formation of the World
Heritage Community in 2001
The program covers different aspects as listed:
A sustainable Tourism Management Plan
Training Locals in Tourism related activities
Promoting relevant local products
Raising public awareness and pride
Using tourism-generated funds for protection costs
Sharing knowledge and lessons amongst protected areas
Increase understanding for the need to protect WHS
Not everyone is supportive of WHS though
As was the case of the Wadden Sea in Netherlands, the main opposition was because
the locals did not want to lose their decision-making powers. Also, the fear that it
would gain global significance and there were little funds to support its management
Land-use Planning Methods
This next section considers the range of planning and management techniques that are
available to control any negative consequences of tourism on the natural environment
Zoning
Land Management strategy that can be applied on different spatial scales
Subsequently identifies where tourism can and cannot take place
There are two key stages
1) Descriptive: identify important values, recreational opportunities and
resources.
2) Allocation: where the opportunities and values will be located in the protected
area
Shown in box 7.5 p.186; Zoning is used in an attempt to balance the requirements of
Scientific research
Conservation
Tourism
Other forms of commercial activities
Five zones have been designated for the application of National Parks (p.185)
Zone 1—Special preservation
Zone 2—Wilderness
Zone 3—Natural Environment
Zone 4—Recreation
Zone 5—Park Services
Zone 5 ‘Honeypots’, are highly modified to encompass a wide range of tourist
recreational activities and are often used to persuade people from venturing to
vulnerable areas
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