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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

8 Pages

Course Code
GEOG 3490

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GEOG*3490 Chapter 7 Legislation for environmental protection Intro – Interactions between tourism and the environment have become the concern of governments, NGO’s, local communities, donor agencies and thee private sector. – These stakeholders will decide whether environmental impact is positive or negative. The role of the government – Wide range of power over tourism developments but also have to prioritize – Hierarchy of national goals – Today there is more awareness surrounding environmental impacts and strategies to reduce it – Some developing counties have issues with these strategies – Joan Martin Brown remarks, “The third world tells us you’re telling us not to do what you did to achieve your high standard of living. What are you going to do for us?” – Wealth creation through the unrestricted use of natural resources is intensified through globalization – International trade agreements have encouraged the process, notably: • GATT; General agreement on tariffs and trade • GATS; General agreement on trade I n services – Basic premise of GATS is free-market access and denial of any protectionist measures • Opening up countries to unlimited foreign investment – 7.1 shows the effects of a deregulated global economy • In The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) a chief traded his communities rights to its forests for 25 years for some tools, a couple bags of sugar & salt, and three schools and pharmacies. • The chief didn’t know one tree was worth $8,000 in the US – Governments are often reluctant to put any obstacles like environmental regulations in the way of capital inflow • If X has environmental restrictions companies will often choose Y where restrictions are more lax or don’t exist – The World Bank and IMF also restrict governments from allocating there money to environmental protection because they are cutting costs for these governments who are in debt – Policy and planning measures that national, regional, and local governments may consider: • Protect areas through legislation: national or provincial parks. Eg World heritage site • Implement land-use planning measures: zoning, carrying capacity analysis, and limits of acceptable change (LAC). • Mandatory environmental impact analysis • Encourage co-ordination between governments and the private sectors adopt environmental management policies like environmental auditing and management systems. Protected Areas – Governments have the power to protect different destinations – United nations Environmental program (UNUP) & the World Tourism Organization (1992) have produced classifications for these areas – The permitted use by humans varies, the most restricted being at the top of the list (p.176) • Scientific reserve/Strict Nature Reserve • National Parks • Natural Monuments/ Natural Land Marks • Managed Nature Reserve/ Wildlife Sanctuary • Protected Landscapes • Resource Reserves • Naturally Biotic Area/ Anthropological Reserve • Multiple-use Management Area/ Managed Resources – The 1 National park was created at Yosemite, America in 1872 – By the end of the 19 century national parks had been created in other countries as well • Banff National park, 1887 • Tongariro National park, 1894 – MacCannel (1992) suggests that the formation of National parks affirms the power of human’s over nature – Murphy (1985), The biggest threat to National parks today is tourism – National parks are not just the earths surface marine parks have also been established to protect coral reefs • Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire Marine Park) • Seychelles (Saint Anne National Marine Park) – National Parks are important focal points for attracting international tourism Box 7.3 Summary of Costs & Benefits Benefits Costs Protects landscape, wildlife, and ecological Have to be carefully managed recreation & community tourism pose threats People can experience nature National park status attracts tourists and can lead to overcrowding Provides jobs for people protecting & Indigenous people can be excluded from conserving the environment rather then their territory to protect landscape and destructive practices wildlife – The convention for The World Heritage Sites was established in 1972 by UNESCO • The purpose is to protect sites containing significant cultural & natural heritage • The catalyst for its formation was the threat of flooding the Aswan High Dam in Egypt put on the Abu Simbel Temples in 1959. • Today there are 830 WHS, 644 are cultural, 162 are natural, and the remaining 24 are considered mixed. • Spatially diverse they are found in 138 different nations; they can be very remote and some have living communities – A major down fall, like national parks, is that they are publicized and suffer threats from tourism – Climate and urbanization also cause threats to WHS like Australia’s great coral reef – The awareness of the problems tourism may cause led to the formation of the World Heritage Community in 2001 – The program covers different aspects as listed: • A sustainable Tourism Management Plan • Training Locals in Tourism related activities • Promoting relevant local products • Raising public awareness and pride • Using tourism-generated funds for protection costs • Sharing knowledge and lessons amongst protected areas • Increase understanding for the need to protect WHS – Not everyone is supportive of WHS though – As was the case of the Wadden Sea in Netherlands, the main opposition was because the locals did not want to lose their decision-making powers. Also, the fear that it would gain global significance and there were little funds to support its management Land-use Planning Methods This next section considers the range of planning and management techniques that are available to control any negative consequences of tourism on the natural environment Zoning – Land Management strategy that can be applied on different spatial scales – Subsequently identifies where tourism can and cannot take place – There are two key stages 1) Descriptive: identify important values, recreational opportunities and resources. 2) Allocation: where the opportunities and values will be located in the protected area – Shown in box 7.5 p.186; Zoning is used in an attempt to balance the requirements of • Scientific research • Conservation • Tourism • Other forms of commercial activities – Five zones have been designated for the application of National Parks (p.185) • Zone 1—Special preservation • Zone 2—Wilderness • Zone 3—Natural Environment • Zone 4—Recreation • Zone 5—Park Services – Zone 5 ‘Honeypots’, are highly modified to encompass a wide range of tourist recreational activities and are often used to persuade people from venturing to vulnerable areas Carrying Capacity Analysis – Defined by the World Tourism Organization as: the maximum use of any site without causing negative effects on the resources, reducing customer satisfaction, or exerting adverse impact on the society, economy, and culture of an area. – Carrying capacity can be difficult to quantify but is essential for planning for tourism and recreation – Four types of carrying capacity • Economic • Psychological • Environmental • Social – Box 7.6 (p.189) contains ‘Factors that influence the carrying capacities of tourism destinations’ Limits of Acceptable Change/use (LAC) – An evolution of the techniques of Carrying capacity – Developed in response to the attempts to define and implement Carry
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