HIST 1010 Chapter 1-14: Chapter Summaries Master List

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15 Dec 2016
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Chapter 10
-14th-15th century politics centered around ambitions of the great and powerful families
-Aristocrats competed for personal power, public office, military command, taxing power
Eastern Expansion:
-Teutonic orders used military action to spread Christianity along Baltic coast
-Pagan inhabitants either converted or faced expulsion
-When they left they gave the land to German peasants and produced grain
Central European kingdoms:
-New silver and copper mines meant recruiting from overpopulated western Germany
-Eastern Europe (abundant land, relative freedom) attracted people
-Wanted to make martial ties to Germany but ensured German nobles couldn't take land from the other
central European kingdoms
Central and Eastern Europe:
-Jan Hus leads reform movement
-Reform challenged authority of the Roman Church
-Direct predecessor of the great reformation in 16th century
Golden Bull:
-Recognized German rulers were autonomous rulers
-After the bull the emperor was chosen by 7 great princes of the emperor without consulting the pope
-Made disputed elections less likely
-Made office less significant as well
A hundred years of war:
-Political map spread across Europe all family estates
-3 disputes triggered a series of campaigns called hundred years war
1) Conflicting rights in Gascony in southern France
-English held French land then a dispute came as to the owner of the land
2) English and the Flemish cloth towns, these towns were the primary customers for English wool
-Series of bloody revolts
3) Royal succession in France dispute
-Chivalry/Warfare (Cause of war was chivalry)
-Keep honor by violence/gain honour by violence
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France:
-France has more size and wealth than England
-16 million largest kingdom
-Major producer of cereal wines and cloth
-French hired Italian crossbowmen but nobles hated them and did not use them effectively
Battle of Crecy:
-French army was way larger
-English set archers on a hill rained down on the suicidal charge of the French cavalry and won total
-John II learned nothing and tried attacking the English again and they were captured
-English constantly attacked and raided outer French villages
-Raiding and pillaging continued for decades
-French economy and political state seemed doomed
Joan of Arc:
-From Champagne
-Deeply religious
-Claimed to have heard voice of saints
-Defeated English in Orleans
-Failed to take Paris
-1431 captured
Formigny was the last battle in 1450
1315-1317 first great famine
between 1300-1450 Europe pop fell 30%
1/3-1/2 of Europe’s pop died
Last outbreak of the plague in Europe was in 1771 in Moscow killed 60000
The plague of insurrection:
-Governments made new taxes to profit from laborers
-Social mobility slowed to a halt
The Jacquerie Revolt:
Directed against nobility
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-Churches were burned
-Nobles and priests killed
Revolts all across Europe because taxes were being raised
-Economic shifts on what was being exported
-Poverty and crime
-Economic depression, plague
-Higher crime rate
The avignon papacy:
-French popes
-They achieved financial goals
-Sale of indulgences
The great schism:
-The church had 2 heads with reasonable claim to office
-Divided western Christendom
-Both popes opposed conciliarism because it suggested the assembly rather than the pope had power
Witchcraft:
-Less common in the middle ages
-Got more common 16th-17th centuries
Christians:
-Men focused on imitating Jesus
-Poverty
-Suffering
-Humility
-Women developed their own form of piety
-Racial fasting
John Wycliffe:
-Attacked church and their bases
-Salvation based not on sacrifices but the divine predestination
Religious persecution in Spain:
-Expulsion and execution
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