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Chapter 11

HIST 1010 Ch. 11 Textbook Summary (pgs. 333-44) (F11)

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Peter Goddard
Semester
Fall

Description
HIST 1010 Chapter 11 Summary: Pgs. 333-444 Catholic Reform and Counter Reformation o Theatines – reform-minded leaders at the higher levels of church hierarchy o Capuchins – sought to return to the original ideals of Saint Francis o Somaschi – became active in the mid-1520s o Barnabites – founded in 1530; worked to repair the moral, spiritual, and physical damage done to people in war-torn Italy o Society of Jesus (Jesuits) – church recognized it in 1540 o Ignatius of Loyola (founder of Jesuits) – heroic figure; dashing courtier/soldiero in youth; serve the church as a soldier of Christ o Spiritual Exercises – taught that a person could shape their own behavior – even create a new religious self – through disciplined study/regular practice o Teach good Catholics to deny themselves and submit without question to higher church authority and spiritual direction o Pope Paul III – call a general council of the church to reassert church doctrine o Steps were taken to curtail the selling of church offices/other religious goods Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe o Reformers were so cautious that they changed late medieval society very little and actually encouraged acceptance of the sociopolitical status quo o Radical changes in traditional religious practices and institutions o Clergy and religious were everywhere; made up 6-8% of urban pop; exercised considerable political as well as spiritual power; they legislated and taxed, tried cases in special church courts, enforced laws with threats of excommunication o Church calendar regulated life; 1/3 of year = religious celebrations o Mass/liturgy read entirely in Latin o Several times during year, special preachers arrived in city to sell indulgence o People everywhere complained about clergy’s exemption from taxation and the civil criminal code o Church had too much influence over education/culture th o 16 century: number of clergy fell, religious holidays shrank; churches reduced in number; worship was conducted almost completely in vernacular; indulgence preachers no longer appeared o Luther’s translation of New Testament could be found in private homes o Clergy could marry, most did; paid taxes; were punished for their crimes in civil courts o Many Protestant reformers in Germany, France, England = humanists o Luther and Melanchthon restricted the University of Wittenberg’s curriculum; commentaries on Lombard’s Sentences were dropped, as was cannon law; straight forward historical study replaced old scholastic lectures on Aristotle; students read primary sources directly o John Calvin and Theodore Beza founded University of Geneva – created primarily to train Calvinist ministers, pursued ideals similar to those set forth by Luther and Melanchthon o Protestant reformers favored clerical marriage and opposed monasticism and the celibate life o Praised women in her own right; new laws gave them greater security and protection o Protestants stressed sacredness of home and family o Companionate marriage; sharing aut
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