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Chapter 13

HIST 1010 Ch. 13 Textbook Summary (F11)

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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

HIST 1010 Chapter 13 Summary: Pgs. 371-406 o Europe dominated other parts of the world politically, militarily, and economically o Certain states in northern Europe organized themselves politically so as to e able to dominate Europe and later influence and even govern other large areas through military might and economic strength Netherlands o Seven provinces (United Provinces of Netherlands) emerged as nation after revolting against Spain in 1572 o 1714 – Dutch reverted to their republican structures o Calvinist Reformed Church was official church of the nation, but was not an established church o Country became haven for Jews o More people lived in cities o 17 Century – Dutch drained and reclaimed land from the sea, which they used for highly profitable farming o Dutch only wanted commercial dominance of the spice trade but moved towards producing the spices themselves – required them to control many of the Islands that now constitute Indonesia (remained colonial masters of this region until after WWI) o Continued financial dominance – Dutch banks continued to finance European trade – Amsterdam stock exchange remained important financial institution Two Models of European Political Development o Venice and Swiss – republic governed without monarch o Two models – 1) parliamentary monarchy 2) political absolutism th o Second half of 16 century – changes in military organization, weapons, and tactics sharply increased the cost of warfare o Absolutism in France and parliamentary monarchy in England – shaped subsequent political development in Europe o Queen Elizabeth – reign of almost 45 years – parliament only met when monarch summoned it to provide financial support James I o 1603 – James I inherited large royal debt and fiercely divided church – strong believer in divine right of kings o Shortly before James’ death, England again went to war against Spain, largely in response to parliamentary pressures Charles I o Unable to gain adequate funds from Parliament, Charles I restored an extra parliamentary measures – levying new tariffs/duties, attempting to collect discontinued taxes, subjecting English property owners to so-called forced loan, imprisoning those who refused to pay o 1628: Petition of Right – required that henceforth there should be no forced loans/taxation without the consent of Parliament, no freeman should be imprisoned without due cause, troops should not be billeted in private homes o Charles made peace with France in 1629, Spain in 1630 o When Scots defeated an English army at Battle of Newburn in summer 1640, Charles reconvened Parliament – for long and fateful duration Long Parliament & Civil War o Landowners/merchant classes long resented king’s financial measures/paternalistic rule o Long Parliament (1640-1660) o Abolished courts that had enforced royal policy and prohibited the levying of new taxes without its consent o Parliament sharply divided over religion o Moderate Puritans (Presbyterians) and more extreme Puritans (Independents) wanted to abolish bishops and Book of Common Prayer o January 1642 – Charles invaded Parliament, intending to arrest certain of his opponents but they escaped Oliver Cromwell and Puritan Republic o Defeated military June 1645, Charles for the next several years tried to take advantage of divisions within Parliament, but Cromwell and his army foiled him o Charles executed Jan 30, 1649 as public criminal o 1649-1660 – England became officially Puritan Republic Charles II and Restoration of Monarchy o Clarendon Code excluded Roman Catholics, Presbyterians and Independents from official religious and political life of nation o 1670 – Treaty of Dover, England and France formally allied against Dutch o Declaration of Indulgence 1672 – suspending all laws against Roman Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants o 1678 – Titus Oates swore before a magistrate that Charles’s Catholic wife, through her physician, was plotting with Jesuits and Irishmen to kill king so James could assume the throne – aka: Popish Plot o Charles II turned again to increased customs duties and the assistance of Louis XIV from extra income o Able to rule from 1681-1685 without recalling Parliament o Charles died in 1685 Glorious Revolution o James II became king, immediately demanded the repeal of Test Act o 1687 – issued another Declaration of Indulgence suspending all religious tests and permitting free worship o June 1688 – James imprisoned seven Anglican bishops who had refused to publicize his suspension of laws against Catholics o Each = direct royal attack on local authority of nobles, landowners, church and other corporate bodies whose members belied they possessed particular legal privileges o Parliament 1689 – proclaimed William III and Mary II the new monarchs, thus completing the “Glorious Revolution” o Recognized Bill of Rights that limited powers of monarchy and guaranteed the civil liberties of English privileged classes o England’s monarchs would be subject to law and would rule by consent of Parliament o Bill of Rights – prohibited Roman Catholics from occupying the English throne o Toleration Act 1689 – permitted worship by all Protestants and outlawed only Roman Catholics and those who denied the Christian doctrine of Trinity o Act of Settlement provided for English crown to go to Protestant House of Hanover in Germany Louis XIV o Groundwork for Louis XIV’s absolutism had been laid by two powerful chief ministers – Cardinal Richelieu, Cardinal Mazarin o Attempted to impose direct royal administration on France o 1649-1652 – Fronde o Make monarchy most important and powerful institution in France while also assuring the nobles and other wealthy groups of their social standing and influence on the local level o Ruled through councils that controlled foreign affairs, army, domestic administration, and economic regulations o Controlled foreign affairs and limited the influence of noble institutions on the monarchy o Never missed opportunity to impress the grandeur of his crown on the French people but most especially on the French nobility o Versailles built between 1676-1708 – on outskirts of Paris, became Louis’s permanent residence after 1682 o Temple of royalty, designed and decorated to proclaim the glory of the Sun King o Versailles paid significant political dividends o King’s rising and dressing were times of rare intimacy King of Divine Rights o Bossuet defended what he called “divine right of kings” o Kings and ministers supported social and financial privileges of these local elites Louis’s Early Wars o Jean-Baptiste Colbert – Louis’ brilliant minister, Louis could afford to raise/maintain a large and powerful army o Early wars of Louis XIV conflicts with Spain and United Netherlands o War of Devolution – Louis supported the alleged right of his first wife to inherit the Spanish Netherlands o 1667 – Louis’ armies invaded Flanders and the Franche-Comte o Repulsed by Triple Alliance of England, Sweden and United Provinces Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies o Carried out repressive actions against both Roman Catholics and Protestants o Roman Catholic religious movement – Jansenism arose in 1630s o Particularly opposed Jesuit teachings about free will o Jansenism made considerable progress among prominent families in Paris o Opposed to Jesuits and supported Jansenism religious communities o Jansenists were known to live extremely pious and morally austere lives – though firm Roman Catholics, they resembled English Puritans o May 31, 1653 – Pope Innocent X declared heretical five Jansenist theological propositions on grade and salvation o 1660 – Louis permitted papal bull banning Jansenism to be enforced in France o 1713 – Pope Clement XI issued the bull Unigenitus – extensively condemned Jansenist teaching o Louis XIV ordered the French church to accept bull despite internal ecclesiastical opposition o 18 century after death of Louis XIV – Parliament of Paris and other French judicial bodies would reassert their authority in opposition to monarchy o Courts were sympathetic to Jansenists because of their common resistance to royal authority o Post Edict of Nantes – 1598 – relations between Catholic majority and Protestant minority remained hostile o 1.75 million Huguenots in France in 1660s o After Peace of Nijmwegen, Louis launched a methodical campaign against the Huguenots in an effort to unity France religiously o Louis hounded Huguenots out of public life, banning them from government office and excluding them from such professions as printing/medicine o Encouraged them to convert to Catholicism o October 1685 – Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes Louis’s Later Wars o Treaty of Nijmwegen 1678-1679 o 1689-1697 – League of France battled each other in Nine Years’ War while England and France struggled to control N.A. o Peace of Ryswick – signed Sept. 1697 – ended war, secured Holland’s borders
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