HIST 1010 Ch. 10 (part 2) Textbook Summary (F11)

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8 Aug 2013
HIST 1010
Chapter 10 Summary, Pgs. 303-312
o Discovery of Americans expanded horizons of Europe geographically and
intellectually set new cultural and economic forces
o Prince Henry captured North African Muslim city of Ceuta quest for
gold/spices, “saving souls” (converting to Christianity)
o Church expected exploration to lead to mass conversions
o Portuguese concentrated their explorations on Indian Oceans, Spanish
turned west, Christopher Columbus discovered Americas
o Amerigo Vespucci (America named after him) and Ferdinand Magellan’s
travels proved America’s were new lands
o Explorers conquered and converted non-Christian peoples
o Wealth extracted from its American possessions financed Spain’s
commanding role in religious/political wars of 16th/17th centuries also
fueled Europe-wide economic expansion
o Voyages of discovery were beginning of long history of conquest, disease and
slave labor
o Aztecs conquered by Hernan Cortes becomes New Spain
o Francisco Pizarro conquered Incas
o Whole civilizations with long histories and enormous social architectural,
and technological achievements were destroyed
o Foster Erasmus’s concept of “philosophy of Christ” in New World by
converting inhabitants to Christianity + bringing them European learning
and civilization
o Late 18th century, RCC became one of most conservative forces in Latin
o Colonial economy of L.A.:
1) Mining Silver provided chief source of metallic wealth
2) Agriculture Hacienda (large landed estate owned by Spanish-born),
produced 2 major products: foodstuffs for mining areas/urban centers +
leather goods used in mining machinery; farming + ranching
3) Shipping use of free labor; ex. Black slavery
o Columbus’ discovery increased skepticism about wisdom of ancients, opened
up new possibilities for civilization/morality
o Steady rise in prices during 16th century
o New wealth enabled governments/private entrepreneurs to sponsor basic
research/expansion in printing, shipping, mining, textile, weapon industries
o Europe saw establishment of permanent centralized states/regional
o Previously divided lands came together as nations
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