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Chapter 18

HIST 1010 Ch. 18 Textbook Summary (F11)

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

1 HIST 1010 Chapter 18 Summary: The French Revolution o 1789 political turmoil resulting in rev. erupted in France o FR brought to foreground principles of civic equality/popular sovereignty that challenged major political/social institutions of Europe o Existence of RC faith in France would be challenged Crisis of the French Monarchy o FR shattered many of the political, social, ecclesiastical structures of Europe o French monarchy emerged from 7 Years’ War (1756-1763) defeated, deeply in debt, unable to put its finances on a sound basis o French was rich nation with impoverished gov. o French absolutism involved process of ongoing negotiation between monarchy and local aristocratic interests o 1770, Louis XI appointed Rene Maupeou as chancellor; determined to break the parliaments/increase taxes on the nobility o Unexpected death from smallpox – Louis XV died in 1774 o Parlements used language of liberty/reform to defend their cause o Marie Antoinette – wife of Louis XVI gained rep. for sexual misconduct/personal extravagance o 1786 – Charles Alexandre de Calonne was minister of finance; proposed to encourage internal trade, lower taxes, and transform corvee into money payments o Wanted to introduce a new land tax that all landowners would have to pay regardless of their social status o Estates General of France had not met since 1614 The Revolution of 1789 o First Estate – clergy o Second Estate – nobility o Third Estate – everything else in the kingdom o All the representatives in the Estates General were men o Abbe Sieyes published “What is the Third Estate?” in 1789 – Everything. Nothing. Something. o Strengthening the 3 Estate would best serve the interests of the monarchy and the cause of fiscal reform o Estates Genera gathered in Versailles in May 1789 o Cahiers de doleances (list of grievances) registered by local electors, presented to king o Documents criticized gov. waste, indirect taxes, church taxes/corruption, hunting rights for aristocracy; included calls for periodic meetings of Estates General, more equitable taxes, more local control of administration, unified weights/measures to facilitate trade/commerce, free press o 3 Estate members consisted largely of local officials, professionals, other persons of property o June 17, body declared itself National Assembly; June 19, 2 Estate joined Assembly 2 o Tennis Court Oath: June 20 – locked out of usual meeting place, National Assembly moved to nearby tennis court; took oath to continue to sit until they had given France a constitution o Populace of Paris; numbered more than 600,000 o Winter/spring 1789, high prices for bread (staple food of poor) had produced riots o July 14, large crowds of Parisians marched to Bastille to get weapon for militia; troops in Bastille fired into crowd, killing 98, wounding many; crowd stormed fortress – Storming of Bastille o Great Fear – rumors that royal troops sent into rural districts intensified peasant disturbances that began during spring o Aug. 4, 1789 – National Constituent Assembly renounced feudal rights, dues, and tithes o Attack on Bastille/Great Fear displayed characteristics of urban/rural riots that occurred in 18 century France o Deep economic downturn struck France in 1787-1788; harvests for both years = poor; food prices in 1789 higher than at any time since 1703; many people suffered from hunger o Wage/food riots erupted in several cities; economic problems fanned fires of revolution o Aug 27, Assembly issued Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen; proclaimed all men were born and remain free/equal in rights; all citizens equal before law; directed in large measure against specific abuses of old French monarchical and aristocratic regime o Declaration of Rights of Man/Citizen specifically applied to men, not women o Much of political language of Enlightenment (esp. Rousseau) separated men/women into distinct gender spheres o Men suited for citizenship, women for motherhood/domestic life o Oct. 5, 7,000+ Parisian women armed with pikes, guns, swords, knives marched to Versailles demanding more bread; intimidated king to agree to sanction decrees of Assembly o Parisians demanded Louis/family return to Paris; Oct. 6, 1789, king/family settled in old palace of Tuileries in heart of Paris Reconstruction of France o Constitution 1791, National Constituent Assembly established constitutional monarchy o Active citizens – men paying annual taxes – could vote; women could neither vote/hold office o Only 50,000 citizens of pop. of 25 million could qualify as electors/members of Legislative Assembly o Olympe de Gouges; 1791 – composed Declaration of the Rights of Women; reprinted DRMC adding women to various original clauses; demanded women be regarded as citizens, not as daughters, sisters, wives and mothers of citizens o June 14, 1791 – Chapelier Law forbade workers’ associations; peasants/workers left to freedom/mercy of market place 3 o Assembly authorized the issuance of assignats (gov. bonds) – Dec 1789 o July 1790; Civil Constitution of Clergy – transformed RCC in France into branch of secular state; reduced # of bishoprics o French citizens divided between those who supported constitutional priests and those who followed refractory clergy o June 20, 1791 – Louis/family disguised as servants left Paris/travelled to Varennes o King recognized; June 24, company of soldiers escorted royal family back to Paris o National Constituent Assembly drew close in Sept 1791 o Jacobins established network of local clubs throughout provinces; most advan
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