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Chapter 10

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HIST 1010
Christine Ekholst

Chapter 10: The Later Middle Ages 1300-1500 Politics as a Family Affair - Aristocrats competed for personal power and used public office, military command and taxing power - What mattered was marriage alliances, kinship and dynastic ambitions 1. The Struggle for Central Europe a. The Luxembourgs, Wittelsbachs, Hasburgs, Premysls and the house of Anjou all competed for dominance in the empire b. Eastern expansion th i. Since the early 13 century, the Teutonic orders had used the sword to spread Christianity along the Baltic coast ii. When the pagans fled, their fields were turned over to land-hungry German peasants iii. By 15 century, religious and secular German lords had established a new agrarian economy, modeled on western European estates in regions previously unoccupied or sparsely settled by the Slavic iv. Specialization in cultivation of grain for export to the west c. Central European kingdoms i. Newly opened silver and cooper mines in Bohemia, Silesia and southern Poland ii. Hungarian transylvania needed skilled miners, smelters and artisans iii. Peasants were attracted by the wealth, land and freedom in eastern Europe and aristocrats were attracted by prospective profitable marriages iv. Elections of outsider aristocrats of marriage alliances to royal families from Poland, Hungary and Bohemia were beneficial because they prevented powerful German nobles from claiming succession to their thrones v. Charles IV (1347-1378) 1. Became king of bohemina 2. Founded first university in Prague 3. Built up Prague but dismantled the Holy Roman Empire 4. In 1356, he issued the Golden Bull, an edict that officially recognized that the various German princes and kings were autonomous rulers and the procedure by which future emperors would be elected vi. The empire fragmented into a number of large kingdoms, duchies, free towns, and sovereign bishoprics in the west d. A Hundred years of war i. Consisted of three long–simmering disputes ii. First issue was conflicting rights in Gascony in southern France— since the mid 13 century, the kings of England had held Gascony as a fief of the French king—no one was happy about this so for 75 years, kings fought constantly over sovereignty in the region iii. Second issue was the close relationship between the king of England and the Flemish cloth towth, which provided the English with their wool—early in the 14 century, Flemish artisans revolted against the aristocratic cloth dealers who monopolized the power—the French sided with the wealthy merchants and the English with the artisans iv. The third issue concerned Charles IV dying without an heir—the closest heir was the English king, King Edward III—the French pretended that the crown could not pass through a woman (Edwards mother Isabella) so that the two nations wouldn’t combine—they gave the crown to Charles’ cousin, Philip VI who became the first of the Valois kings in France—Edward declared war on Philip when he tried to take Gascony v. Chivalry was big factor in the cause of the war—Edward was practiced in organizing and financing his campaigns but Philip had more wealth and size (16 million vs. 5 million in England) vi. Battle of Crecy in 1346—English victory vii. Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy allied himself with England against France and profited from the war to form a lordship that included Flanders, Brabant, Luxembourg and Hainaut—he was the most powerful ruler in Europe at his death viii. Joan of Arc claimed to have heard the voices of saints ordering her to save Orleans and have the dauphin crowned according to tradition at Reims—the French army ended up defeating the English and ending the siege—Joan was captured and burned at the stake in Rouen in 1431, with the French king Charles making no attempt to save her ix. The houses of York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose) fought for 30 years to determine royal succession (war of the roses)—
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