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Chapter 9

Textbook Notes - Chapter 9

Course Code
HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

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History – Chapter 9
The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300-1453)
The Black Death
*The effects of the Bubonic plague on population and society
- preconditions: famine; subsistence economy
- cause: fleas on rats carried by sea, discoloured the body; reached lungs
- flagellants, tried cures like amulets, blamed poisonous fumes, Jews
The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment
*between England and France
- from 1337 to 1453
- cause of war: English King Edward III asserting claim to French throne (grandson of Philip the
fair of France); Edward was only 15 at the time; England and France emerging territories too
close to each other; English possession of any French land threatened the royal policy of
- French weakness: had 3x the population of England, was wealthier but lost often
- Estates General (representative council of townspeople, clergy and nobles) to secure funds
- Three major stages of development
oConflict during reign of Edward III
Jacquerie (French peasant revolt in 1358)
oFrench defeat and the Treaty of Troyes
oJoan of Arc and the War’s Conclusion
1340: English victory at Bay of Sluys
1346: English victory at Crecy and seizeure of Calais
1347: Black Death
1356: English victory at Poitiers
1358: Jacquerie disrupts France
1360: Peace of Bretigny-Calais recognizes English holdings in France
1381: English Peasants revolt
1415: English victory at Agincourt
1420: Treaty of Troyes recognizes the English king as heir to the French throne
1422: Henry VI proclaimed king of both England and France
1429: Joan of Arc leads French to victory at Orleans
1431: Joan of Arc executed as a heretic
1453: War End; English retain only Calais
Joan of Arc: (1412-1431), peasant from Eastern France, God told her deliver Orleans from the English;
presented herself to Charles VII in March 1429; turned over to the Inquisition and executed as a heretic
in 1431. declared a saint by the RC Church in 1920
Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church
It may look like popes were in a favourable position in the latter thirteenth century.
Frederick II had been vanquished and imperial pressure on Rome had been removed.
- Frederick II – Holy Roman Emperor
- Born 26-dec-1194 and died 13-dec-1250
- One of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors
- Head of the House of Hohenstaufen

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- Enemies – especially popes, dynasty collapsed after his death
- Emperor for 30 years; King of the Romans 1212-1215
oKing of Germany, Italy and Burgundy
oCrowned king of Sicily at the age of 3, co-ruler with his mother constance
oKing of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage and his connection with the sixth crusade
oExcommunicated 4 times; Pope George IX called him the Antichrist
oSpoke 6 languages, patron of science and arts
oAfter his death his line quickly died out and the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end
- French King Louis IX
oEnthusiastic supporter of the church (2 disastrous crusades), sainthood
oReunion of Eastern Church – Council of Lyons in 1274
- Michael VII Palaeologus (ruled 1261-1282) request aid against Turks
The Thirteen Century Papacy
- Pope Innocent III (ruled 1198-1216), papal power reached its height
oElaborated doctrine of papal plentitude of power; disposed of benefices
oBorn 1160ish and died 16-jul-1216
oBirth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni
oExerted a wide influence over the Christian regimes of Europe, claiming supremacy over
all of Europe’s kings.
oCentral in supporting catholic church’s reforms of ecclesiastical affairs
oWas able to compel princes to obey his decisions, although these measures were not
uniformly successful
oCalled for crusades against militant heretics like the Cathars, as well as Muslims.
oMost critical decision – The Fourth Crusade, originally intended to support the Byzantine
Empire at Constantinople from attack by Turkish invaders; 1204.
- Urban IV
o(ruled 1261-1264)
oborn Jacques Pantaleon
onot a cardinal, cobbler of Troyes, France
ostudied theology and common law in Paris
oat the First Council of Lyon he attracted the attention of Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254)
who sent him on two missions in Germany.
- Latter half of the 13th century saw an elaboration of the system of clerical taxation, what had
begun in the 12th century as an emergency measure to raise funds for the crusades became a fixed
oPapal power to determine appointments to many major and minor church offices
oReservation of benefices
oPapacy became powerful political institution governed by its own law and courts,
serviced by an efficient international bureaucracy, and preoccupied with secular goals
oPapal centralization of the church undermined both diocesan authority and popular
oRome’s interests, not local needs, came to control church appointments policies and
oSecond half of 13th century bishops and abbots protested such undercutting of their power
oAs early as the late 12th century, heretical movements of Cathars and Waldensians had
appealed to the biblical ideal of simplicity and separation from the world. Other
reformers who were unquestionably loyal to the church, such as Saint Francis of Assisi
also protested perceived materialism in official religion.
Political Fragmentation:
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