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HIST 2100 (5)
Chapter 1-4


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University of Guelph
HIST 2100
Jason Wilson

HIST 2100 HISTORY OF THE CANADIAN PEOPLES September 9 2013 CHAPTER ONE Canada: A Bird’s Eye View - For the beaver people of northern Alberta- earths creation began when muskrat retrieved a speck of dirt from the primordial sea - Views about the earths origin vary but it is known in Canada that the physical environment played a crucial factor in the shaping of life’s chances and choices - Environment places limits on the possibilities that people enjoy - It provides challenges and opportunities to people in various regions THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT - Canada is second largest nation  7% of earth’s surface - Was known to be cold and uninhabitable, buried under a vast sheet of ice - Last ices age- 20,000 years ago - Geographers define 6 major physiographic regions (areas with similar landforms) east to west they are:  The Atlantic and Gulf Region  northern portion referred to as Appalachia  straddle two national territories  encompass most of Atlantic region of Canada  ancient rounded hills and plateaus w/ few fertile zones  climate and veg. vary  coast is heavy with rain  systematic agriculture developed in European settlement on flatlands  The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands  southern Ontario/Quebec  gentle rolling hills  belts of fertile soil- lakes and rivers  abundance of smallish game  large pop. of natives  The Canadian Shield  40% of Canada’s land mass  sheet of Precambrian rock  bundant game  good minerals and forest resources  The Interior Plains  created over course of several ice ages  flat layers of sedimentary rock  flat clay plains intersected by glacial melt water producing valleys  rolling hills  good/excellent soil  The Western Cordillera  large pop. of natives  6 mountain ranges through Al. and BC  plateaus, rivers and valleys  fish, mountain sheep, bear, dear  The North  sub regions  subarctic (colder and less fertile)  arctic (no trees, little soil, long harsh winters, home of Inuit, permafrost) - Pace of environmental change has increased in recent years - Game of the native times has been majorly depleted CHAPTER TWO The First Nations of Canada - While most Europeans judged aboriginals harshly b/c of their own norms. Some observed and marveled at their customs and traditions and elaborate technologies - First nations have strong sense of own identity in which Europeans slowly destroyed Writing Native History - Before 1960s- Canadian history started with European settlement and discovery - Ethnohistorians  Study first nations societies by piecing together evidence from European observations, anthropological studies, archaeological evidence, and relevant data provided by meteorologists, biologists, among others - Oral tradition of native peoples (accounts of early traders, priests, travellers etc.)and archaeological evidence suggest different conclusions - Time and tides have also eroded a lot of evidence of past - Documents by Europeans have major bias - Oral could also be distorted- most were men who recorded therefore womens roles in economic activity, religion, and warfare were given short shrift- First Nations Before 1500 - Native pop. around 1500 was around 30 million to over 100 million - Scholars argue natives are of Asiatic origin across land bridges that connected Siberia to Alaska during ice ages (b/w 30,000 and 10,000 years ago) - Every native group has a creation myth that explains origin of earth and its creatures - 50 distinct cultures encompassing 12language grouping - Language groupings: languages w/ a common origin , not necessarily speaking mutually understandable languages - Lived in societies ranging from scrupulously egalitarian model of the subarctic Athapaskan tribes to the slave-owning, highly stratified societies on the west coast - Farming was introduced by Europeans forcing game to relocate frequently - Inventions such as spear thrower(allowed more time for hunter to hit target and be more accurate), bow +arrow, buffalo jump and buffalo pound (herding into corral) Common Cultural Characteristics - The various tribes shared a number of traits - Religions as much as nature regulated everyday life  characterized by belief in a divinity residing in all living creatures + natural objects - Believed their communication w/ spirits was the secret to any successes they had  Quests and dreams lead to animals and plants they needed - Creation stories show how different natives perceived the relationship b/w natural world and the divine - Native god of creation was sexless  Created man and woman at same time - Regard themselves as part of nature  Had mutual respect b/w sexes - Had knowledge of the uses of a wide range of materials found in nature - Plants for medicinal purposes - Wood and other natural materials used in transportation (canoes, snowshoes, toboggans), homes, cooking utensils, weapons - Had lines of trade b/w themselves  Was peaceful aspect of relations among native groups - Warfare occurred in every region  Motivated by revenge but mostly bound with native rituals  Warrior males trained and wanted to prove battle worthiness - Premarital sex was practiced in aboriginal societies  Expressed feelings about sex openly  Experienced no guilt - Children not subjected to discipline and punishment as Europeans did - Gay and lesbian relationships accepted in native tribes - Women held more social power than European women - Women produced and controlled food resources of the tribe - Men gained status through prowess as hunters and protectors The First Nations of the Atlantic and Gulf Region - Algonkian  Speaking cultures inhabited most of northern half of North American continent - Mi’kmaq was largest group in Atlantic Canada  3500 to 35,000 before yr.1500  Occupied Nova Scotia, P.E.I, and northern New Brunswick  Migrated by season  Relatively egalitarian and exalted individual liberty  Wealth evident in quillwork  May have produced formal governmental structures - Beothuk in Newfoundland  1000 in yr.1500  Depended on caribou  Used canoes  Lived in wigwams - Maliseet in southern New Brunswick  Lived year round in one spot The Canadian Shield First Nations - Algonkian inhabited much of Canadian shield - Innu  Northern Quebec + southern Labrador  Caribou- rough equality  Men and women worked together to survive - Ojibwa  Northern shores of lake Huron and lake superior from Georgian bay to edge of prairies  Dome-shaped wigwams  Permanent homes  Both sexes hunted  Religious beliefs central to culture  Had shamans  Had different bands within tribe  Would come together for warfare and spiritual feasts, etc. - The Cree  Migrated westward  More nomadic  Smaller bands  Tipis made of caribou or moose  Followed the game  No concept of landownership (same with Ojibwa)  Seasons dictated social gatherings  Importance in dreams and vision in communicating with spirit world - The Nipissing - The Algonquin - Dispersed groups(400 ppl) - Self-governing - Informal alliance systems for purposes of warfare The Interior Plains First Nations - Siouan speaking groups - The Blackfoot  Algonkian nation  Three tribal groups (Blackfoot, Peigan + Blood)  Used guns and horses traded by Cree to expand territory  Military societies  Nomadic existence  Worshippers of sun and thunder (sun dance- elaborate religious ceremonies lasting days )  Had sub dance bundles as well as medicine bundles kept in rawhide bag  Transferring bundles involved ceremonies lasting weeks - Saskatchewan , Alberta, Manitoba - Depended on buffalo The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands First Nations - Iroquoian speaking tribes - Southern Ontario - St. Lawrence valley - St. Lawrence Iroquoians - The Huron - The Petun - The Neutral - All together around 50, 000 people in yr.1500 - Large palisaded villages and loose political confederacies - Seasons governed people’s lives - Longhouse  elm bark  Attached wooden frames  6 metres wide  30 metres long  40 members of extended family lived - Village had maybe 30-50 longhouses - Matrilineal (decent traced through mothers line) and matrilocal (a man lived with family of wife) - Women dominated agricultural activities - Barter - Important decisions needed approval of women - Women could replace chiefs If they were not adequate - Confederacies: men selected by women of villages  Made decisions on war and peace and tried to settle disputes b/w villages or clans  Had no permanent officials  Loose system of government - Individual freedom and collective sharing of tasks and goods characterized Iroquoian society - Warfare demanded so young men could show their prowess - Captured warriors sometimes cooked and eaten in ceremonies The Western Cordillera First Nations - British Columbia - 12 language families- 6 exclusive to BC - 200, 000 people - Tsimshian  Northern mainland, coast Salish (southern mainland), Vancouver island - Southern Kwakiutl  East coast of Vancouver island, Haida of the Queen Charlotte islands - Nootka  Vancouver islands west coast - Most affluent societies of pre-contact Canada - Chiefdoms characterized by social hierarchies - Had potlatches  Feasts where everyone brought something  Legitimized social structure  Captives excluded from potlatches - Abundant timber - Varying religious beliefs, resources and marriage practices - Worshipped gods of the forests, mountains, and beaches The North’s First Nations - Athapaskan languages - N.W.T and Nunavut - Marked by cooperation in the tasks required for eking out a subsistence in a harsh terrain - Work was sex-segregated - Both hunted  Men large, women small - Both sexes became shamans - Inuktitut - Claimed a home on two continents - Inuit - Sealskin covered kayaks and umiaks of Inuit was main sea transportation - Bow, arrow and spear thrower to hunt and use as weapons - Had religious beliefs that followed hunter gatherer tribes in N.A - Had igloos in winter - Whalebone and driftwood homes in summer - Rich cultures  Songs and dances  Beating drums - leisure activities  Gambling, football, archery, and club throwing TH Chapter Three September 16 2013 Europe in the 1500s - Racial and sexual hierarchies were considered natural and beneficial - Tools for dealing with “inferior races” were slavery and genocide - Rise of Europe to world dominance is one of themost drmamatic developments in the history of humankind - 15 century- Europeans values, material culture, diseases, animals and plants began to move around the worldby understanding their world (Europe) we can better understand why they interacted with the first nations the way they did A Society in Transition - Social order characterized by agriculture self sufficiency and rigid hirerarchies was giving way to a new order in which trade and impersonal market-based relationships were becoming increasingly important - New leaders emerging - Emergence of nation-states - Government bureaucracies rather than individual landlords made the rules - Small class of intellectual;s who challenged traditional values- teachings lead them away from catholic church - Religious devotion existed with greed and bloody warfare European Social Order - Egalitarian hunting and gathering societies in Eurasia gave way to agricultural settlements 10,000-2000 years ago - Religious and military castes formed - Patriarchal ideology - Feudal system Population - 16 century – roughly 100 million people - 39 million in 1600 - Increase in population meant more famines - Many factors affected the flucuation of the population- plague, diseases, starvation etc. - Warfare killed many - Thirty years war – population went from 21 million to 13.5 mi. - Life expectancy was short Economic life - 75% dependednt for their livelihood on the farming of small + rented landholdings - Peasant life followed seasonal rhythm - Women spun wool - Guilds - Migration of landless farmers to cities and towns had weakened guild arangements - Finding work was difficult - Wealth was in hands of the rich Women and the economy - At one point were able to work in the guilds sewing, weaving etc. - Then me thought they were competition and started to disallow women from working - So they worked in hospitals and orphanages as midwives - Barred from universities Role of the state - Lords o f the manor enjoyed as much or more power over their domains as monarchs and dispensed justice to their serfs and artisans as they wanted - Standing armies replaced nobles – kings and queens tried to limit the power of landowners and centralize lawmaking - Centralized government bureaucracy implemented rulings across the territory - Courts had appointed advisors hand picked by the king and none were nobles- enforced royal decree - Nobles were absorbed into the court as advisors, military specialists, or part of the monarchs circle - Trading classes and intellectuals in the cities identified themselves as citizens of the larger territory controlled by the monarch unike the peasants who still thought they were only part of a local community - Nation-state came into being o Political order o Boon to trade  Before it was very dangerous and expensive (tax collectors, pirates, armed men)  Emergence of national monarchies w/ taxation powers and armies improved state of trade o Created bond b/w monarch and merchants at expense of nobles o Broke down inernal and external trade barriers o Played entrepreneurial role – arsenals in state hands and sometimes shipping - Monarchs sponsored overseas exploration to expand territory and wealth and create settlements for growing unemployed subjects - Help spread Christian faith, capitalism, nationalism and overseas expansio
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