HIST 2200 Chapter Notes -Ottonian Dynasty, Partible Inheritance, Efflorescence

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HIST 2200 SHORT HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE AGES OCTOBER 1ST 2013
CHAPTER FOUR
POLITICAL COMMUNITIES REORDERED (c.900-c.1050)
- Centralized Gov. of the 9th c. dissolved in the 10th
- In Byzantium- the primacy of the emperor was never effectively challenged
- Islamic world: new dynastic groups established themselves as regional rulers
- Western Europe: Carolingian kings ceased to control land and men
BYZANTIUM: THE STRENGTHS AND LIMITS OF CENTRALIZATION
- 1025- empire shadowed the Danube and touched Euphrates
- Constantinople emperors radiated power of the imperial court
- Centralized model of the state was challenged by powerful men in the countryside
THE IMPERIAL COURT
- Palace of Constantinople expanded, redecorated, and fortified under Constantine’s successors
- More than a symbolic emplacement of imperial power
- Central command post of the empire
- Servants, slaves, and grooms, top courtiers, learned clergymen, cousins, siblings, and hangers-on
of the emperor and empress lived within
- Others were on call at every hour
- Mainly male preserve but did have women’s quarters
- Zoe (d. 1050) daughter of Constantine VIII had the right to rule but people were happier
when she married
- Third gender eunuchs raised to be teachers, doctors, or guardians of the women originally
foreigners but soon came from upper class too some accompanied emperor in sacred duties-
one became grand chamberlain (responsible for internal affairs)
- Grand chamberlain : Michael Psellus (1018-1092)
o New school of phil. At Constantinople founded by Constantine IX flourished
o Moralist
o Keen to explore the character and emotional life of powerful men and women
A WIDE EMBRACE AND ITS TENSIONS
- Expansion of Byzantium began in 9th century and quickened in the 10th under Nicephorus Phocas
and John Tzimisces
- Crete- lost to Muslims- retaken
- Cyprus reconquered in 965
- Antioch
- Basil II (r 963-1025) Bulgaria defeated and put under Byzantine rule nickname : Bulgar Slayer
- Empire was now a sprawling, multi-ethnic and multilingual
o East- embraced Armenians, Syrians, and Arabs
o North- included Slavs, Bulgarians, pecheneges (Turkic group )
o West- Lombard’s, Italians, Greeks
- Russian soldiers were backbone of Basil’s “Varangian Guard” – elite troops
- Mid 11th c. mercenaries included franks, Arabs, and Bulgarians
- 10th c Jews expelled from Constantinople
o Affected the silk trade
- Annexation of Armenia did not lead to the assimilation of Armenians
- Ethnic diversity partly responsible for new regional political movements that threatened
centralized imperial control
- Regional revolts occurred due to rise of new wealthy class (dynatoi)
- Dynatoni : made military men their clients
o Held positions in government
o Dalasseni family
Army leader (founder of group) and governor of Antioch
Network of connections to other powerful families
Could sometimes defy the emperor and even coordinate rebellions
- Rise of provincial aristocracy and prestige of solider emperors worked to change byzantine
culture
o Civilian to military ideals
- Artists portrayed emperors as a symbol of military power
THE FORMATION OF RUS
- Digenis plied his trade in Anatolia
- Before 9th c. fur traders (Vikings) settled east of gulf of Finland
o Took advantage of river networks and trade routes as far south as Iraq and west to
Austria
- Khazars: powerful state laid upon black and Caspian sea dominated silk road
o Ruled by a khagan (like the Avars and the Bulgars)
- Scandinavians (Vikings) had no khagan but were influenced by its culture and adopted the title
for the ruler at their state Novgorod (1st Rus polity)
- Rus- ad affiliate in south- Kiev
o Occasionally attacked Khazars and Byzantines
o Byzantines wanted their fine furs, wax, honey, and slaves
o 10th c. brought Khazars empire to its knees
- Good relationship b/w Byzantines and rus was through religious conversion
o Many Christians lived in rus
o Conversion of rus to Christianity was work of Vladimir (r.c978-1015)
Ruler of rus by conquest
98 he adopted byzantine for of Christianity and took the name Basil
His conversion was part of a larger movement of the 10th and 11th centuries
most of the remaining non-monotheistic people of western Eurasian land mass
adopted 1nof 4 monotheisms: Islam, roman Catholicism , byzantine orthodoxy,
or Judaism
Went under protection of pope
Northern Scandinavians were turning to Catholic Christianity
East of rus- Khazars were Jewish
Volga Bulgars converted to Islam
- Rus (ancestor of Russia ) became heir of the byzantine church, customs, art, and political
ideology
DIVISION AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD
- In the 11th c. profusion of regional groups and dynasties divided the Islamic world
- Was a period of prosperity and intellectual blossoming
EMERGENCE OF REGIONAL POWERS
- Muslim conquest did not eliminate all local powers or regional affiliations totally
- Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates remained strong imposed rule through governors and army
- Caliphate became weak in 10th and 11th c.
- Main groups that emerged: the Samnids, Buyids, Hamdanids, Fatimids and Zirids
- There were many smaller independent rulers as well
- Lack of revenue was key cause of weakness for Abbasid caliphate.
o Landowners, recalcitrant military leaders in various regions of Islamic world refused to
pay taxes into treasury
o Had to rely on farmland of Iraq
o Revolt 869-883 by Zanj who were black slaves from sub-Saharan Africa who had been
put to work to turn marshes into farmland this revolt devastated Iraqi economy
o 10th c. Qaramita a sect of Shi’ites based in Arabia found Iraq easy prey
- In the end the caliphs could not pay their troops and therefore people who could took over the
reins of power reducing Abbasid political authority
- Buyids belonged to ancient warrior tribes from mountains of Iran
o With help of Turkish mercenaries dominated region of the Caspian sea including
Baghdad
o End of 10th c their power is challenged
o The progressive regionalization and fragmentation of power echoed in the Islamic world
and parts of western Europe as well
- Fatimids: were Shi’ites – leader claimed to be the true imam, descendent of ali but also the
Mahdi. The divinely guided messiah come to bring justice to earth
o Allied with the Berbers in n.africa
o Rulers of Tunisia and Libya then moved to rule Egypt, southern Syria and western edge
of the Arabian peninsula

Document Summary

Centralized gov. of the 9th c. dissolved in the 10th. Western europe: carolingian kings ceased to control land and men. In byzantium- the primacy of the emperor was never effectively challenged. Islamic world: new dynastic groups established themselves as regional rulers. 1025- empire shadowed the danube and touched euphrates. Constantinople emperors radiated power of the imperial court. Centralized model of the state was challenged by powerful men in the countryside. Palace of constantinople expanded, redecorated, and fortified under constantine"s successors. More than a symbolic emplacement of imperial power. Servants, slaves, and grooms, top courtiers, learned clergymen, cousins, siblings, and hangers-on of the emperor and empress lived within. Others were on call at every hour. Mainly male preserve but did have women"s quarters. Zoe (d. 1050) daughter of constantine viii had the right to rule but people were happier when she married. Grand chamberlain : michael psellus (1018-1092: new school of phil.