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HIST 2200 September 24th 2013 readings.docx

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HIST 2200

th HIST 2200 September 24 2013 Chapter Three Creating new Identities (c. 750 – c.900) - After the outbreak of the Plague of Justinian, an upswing in population, land cultivation, and general prosperity arose - Byzantium : an empress took the throne - Islamic World: Abbasids displaced the Umayyad’s - Francia: Carolingians deposed the Merovingian’s Byzantium: From Turning Within to Cautious Expansion - 750- B was a state with its back to the world - Its iconoclasm isolated it from other Christians - Focused on military operations, internal defense, - Abandoned classical learning - 900- all changed – inconophile (icon-loving), aggressive and cultured NEW ICONS, NEW ARMIES, NEW TERRITORIES - In Byzantium, iconoclasm reigned true and hard, but still there were those who practiced it and devoted to it even in the palace - When Leo IV died, his wife who was an iconophile took away iconoclasm and restored past iconoclast bishops - Although still some bans were still in place - The end of iconoclasm displeased the old guard in the army but then a new generation became in charge - Emperor Constantine (r. 741 – 775) created new regiments – tagmata – mobile troops, composed of cavalry (elite of fighting men), infantry, muleteers th th - This was first deploted around Constantinople but under 9 and 10 c. rulers, its helped Byzantium to expand - Westward in Balkans: Emperor Nicephorus I (r. 802 – 811)- remodeled old thematic territories and added new ones o Led army against Slavs and took Serdica o Balgarians attacked so he secured the area by sending thousands of families to from Anatolia to settle in Balkans o Wanted to recreate Byzantium o Plundered the Bulgarian capital Pliska o Was killed while passing through a narrow valley- his skull was lined with silver and used as a drinking cup by Bulgarian ruler (khan) Krum th - 9 century: Byzantines worked out warfare in Anatolia o Arab raiding parties attacked  Strategi evacuated population, burned crops, and harassed invaders o 900: Emperor Leo VI (r.886-912) – sent the tagmata to Tarsus- successful  Princely family of Armenia allied with Arabs entered service of Byzantium - Rise of the tagmata downgraded the themes- the soldiers got the grunt work and eventually became inactive EDUCATING WITHOUT AND WITHIN - Byzantine empire converted Balkans to their principles o Two competing were the Papacy and the Franks (preached roman catholic Christianity) o Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius [two brothers]- set out in 863 as missionaries  Constantine created an alphabet using Greek letters to represent the sounds of one Slavic dialect (Glagolitic)- eventually called Old Church Slavic  The church wanted it to only be in Latin therefore Moravia ended the catholic camp  Byzantine Christianity prevailed though - Creation of alphabet in mid-9 century th - 8 century- number of bureaucrats dwindled- schools decaying, books written on papyrus disintegrating - Emperor Theophilus (r. 829-842) : opened public school in the palace headed byy Leo the Mathematician - With end of iconoclasm, monasteries garnered renewed prestige and new recruits - Minuscule: new kind of script: made up of lower case letters written in cursive , the letters strung together - Words separated by spaces making it easier to read - Manuscripts made up of parchment- animal skins scraped and treated - Cultural revival underway - Photius : gathered a circle of scholars ad wrote sermons, homilies and theological treatises o Tutored Emperor Leo VI - Macedonian renaissance : a number of new mosaics, manuscript illuminations, ivories and enamels after 870 o New movement found it models in both abstract, transcendental style that was important during pre-iconoclastic period THE SHIFT TO THE EAST IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD th - Islamic World of the 9 century centered on the caliph and his court - Abbasids moved their center of power to Iraq- stepped into shows of Sasanid King of kings THE ABBASID RECONFIGURATION - Islamic world was made up of wildly diverse regions in geography, language and political, religious, and social traditions while Byzantium was homogenous - Umayyad’s: power base in Syria o Rewarded followers o Took share of conquered land for themselves o Asked for taxes from other regions o Privileged the elite- no fair division of spoils to Arabs – same as non –Arabs who had converted - Two centers of resistance emerged: Khurasan(Iran) and Iraq o Both were part of Persian empire o Khurasan decided to support the Abbasid family who then organised an army marching into Iraq where they picked up more support o Defeated Umayyad governor at Kufa and al-Saffah was named first Abbasid caliph - Abbasid : built capital cities in in Iraq – Baghdad became capital 762, Samarra in 830s o Took title of imam o Wore green colour of the Shi’ites o Created their own elite o Baghdad prospered, land prices arose o Khurasani became the new exclusive jealous elite o Al Mu’tasim (r.833-842) – Abbasid caliph – was able to control and direct provincial revenues to his court in Iraq o Lost Ifriqiya by 800 – never controlled the Berbers and eventually lost effective control in their heartlands o Didn’t need troops for battles but to collect taxes o The armies were unreliable and hard to control therefore al-Ma’mun’s brother and successor al-Mu’tasim created a private army in which he bought and trained his own slaves – they were given governorships and military posts o All of Iraq participated in the commercial buoyancy (trade) o With revenues from commerce and taxes from agriculture, the caliphs could pay their armies, salary their officials and preside over a cultural revival more impressive than in Constantinople NEW CULTURAL FORMS - Harun al-Rashid and al-Ma’mun: literature, science, law and others flourished under their rule o Launched scientific studies o Philosophical, medical, math, and astrological treatises of Indian and Greek worlds translated into Islamic culture o Adab literature: education of gentlemen at court o Astrological predictions, theological debates, understanding theories of bridge building, irrigation and land surveying were only some of the motive behind the translations o Support from caliphs, wives, courtiers, generals and ordinary people - How should one live to be pleasing God? – inspired treatises on law - Under Caliph Ma’mun- Muslim scholars debated importance of Muhammad’s example - Everything went under scrutiny, even the Qur’an – al-Ma’mun thought that taking it literally undermined the caliphs religious auth
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