Took the learning of the ancient greeks and transformed it into their own version and then transmitted it to us. Took the philosophy of plato and aristotle, changed it into medicine, law (foundation for french. Civil code), literature of greece (took them into ideas of cicero and citizenship terms), empire. Was dominating force until possibly 1806 when napoleon invaded italy. Success based on army, focused on citizen soldier everyone should be working to protect the. Led great expansion of empire until 3rd bce, encompassed the italian. 2nd century, expansion into the african areas, carthage. 1st century expanded into greece and asia minor, by the end it had expanded to cover the entire mediterranean area. West was composed of areas with no previous high culture, everything modern was transported and founded there by rome, latin roman culture was assumed by the peoples, unified language, government centres located here.