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HIST 2200 (12)

Rise of Byzantium

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HIST 2200
Susannah Ferreira

Byzantium - Emperor Xeno took control in the East after the death of Romulus Augustus - Entered into alliance with Theoderic and the Ostrogoths Justinian 527 – 565  Long rule allowed for accomplishments during his reign, ambitious - Hired good people and delegated tasks to these people - Last emperor who spoke Latin as mother tongue - Personal values promoted the Latin culture and wanted to reunite the Latin and Greek influences in one unified Empire - Married to Theodora (hated be everyone), called a prostitute, intelligent and proud, co ruler from 527 to 548 - Knowledge of her comes from Procopius (500-562), author of Secret History – stories from the Byzantine palace, tells us the intricate background workings of the palace  (Re)Conquest of the West - Reorganized the Byzantine State - Belisarius (505-565) hired to lead the empire to re conquest the empire - Sailed with 5000 troops and 3000 cavalry to the Italian Peninsula, victory in the beginning but then soon the campaign descends into chaos with Ostrogoth resistance due to change of leadership with the death of Theoderic - 2 pronged attack on Italy in 536 from the north and Sicily, 536-543 victory changed hands, Italians preferred the Goths over the Byzantines, ideas of Imperial order in the Italian peninsula disappears with this war(Senate disappears at this time) - Opened way for the Lombard invasion  Codification of the Law - Law before 4 century was considered the old law with it still being developed before this time through government, courts, and commentators - Codex Justinianus • Done in 528 with group of jurors set out to codify the law • Codification of the Roman Law - Digest – 50 books on the law - Institutes – final work, brief summary of Roman Law\ - Roman law has been used to support both authoritarian rulers and demthratic rulers -11 century they spread to the West, immediately adopted by every state and king to be used as guidelines for everything  Hagia Sophia(massive church) - Mosaic depicts Justinian presenting the Church to the Virgin Mary and Jesus - Constructed in 532-537 - Became mosque when Istanbul founded, becomes a secular museum later on - Eastern architectural styles in this building, vast complex domed structure influenced by Syrian and Greek styles, beginning of Byzantine style - Justinian thought that his Church was even better than Solomon’s Post Justinian  Political/Military - Within 50 years of Justinian’s death, the entire culture became Greek - 584, treatise on military science penned - West falls away, Italian Peninsula falls to the Lombards, in the North the Avars from Turkey dominated (allied with Slavs) - Avars did not want to settle in the empire, just wanted to travel and loot - Slavs desired to move in and settle in the Empire - Persian expansion in the east threatened the Byzantine lands • 602 civil war broke out with poor rulers, allowed the Persians to seize this opportunity, 611 they swept in, 613 Damascus fell, 614 • Jerusalem fell, kept flowing in and were soon across the sea from Constantinople, Persians conquered Egypt (the breadbasket of the empire) - Regrouped under Heraclius, 627 crushed Persians at Ninava  Economy/Commerce - Agriculture needed to feed the people and army - Colonized wastelands and unpopulated areas, brought in
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