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HIST 2200 (12)

The Rise of Islam

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HIST 2200
Susannah Ferreira

The Rise of Islam Spread of Islam  Explanations • New phenomenon, developing in Saudi Arabia • Dramatic expansion from tiny area of nomads to encompassing huge areas of the old Roman Empire over a hundred years, 622 Muhammad made outcast, 625 Islamic army captures Damascus, 638 capture Jerusalem, 641 Egypt, 650 entire Persian Empire conquered, 674 besieging Constantinople, soon it’s on the Chinese borders by 700 • Food shortage in Arabia, internal peace in the area soon sprang up – allowed military energy to develop which could spread out • Byzantine and Roman Empire weak due to fighting, Monophystites fighting in Egypt against the empire Byzantine • Religious minorities preferred the Islam over Byzantine and it allowed all religions to flourish under them and not face any persecution, only had to pay tribute  Eighth-century Expansion • Encountered Charles Martel at the Pyrenees, his army was the first to develop the stirrup to better control their horses • Back in the European sphere, only Charles Martel's defeat of Muslim forces in the Battle of Tours near Poitiers in 732, combined with Leo III's defeat of Muslim besiegers at Constantinople in 717, halted the new religious polity's advances, until ninth century forays into the Mediterranean • Internal events that checked expansion of Islam on top of outside controls -Riots and rebellions against the ruling dynasties -750 Abbasids seize power, move capital from Damascus to Baghdad, decentralized the nation, retained language and religion but there was no one government • Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet, easier for them to accept Christians and Jews than other way around, Government Policy  Religion • Christian intolerance was what brought some extreme response from Muslim rulers, in Spain there was 3 religions lived side by side with no problems for roughly 600 years  Culture & Learning • Arabians began to take higher culture from other nations • Universities and scholarly institutes developed, higher mathematics developed(algebra), biology, medical schools based on Hippocrates and Galen, concept of zero • Contributions to astronomy  Expansion & Trade (9th & 10th Centuries) • Traded with China and others, • Byzantium was buffer, isolated Europe from Muslims, • Regular pilgrimages to the Holy Land, diplomatic missions between Islam and kingdoms of the West such as Charlemagne • Harun al-Raschid(763-809) caliph of Baghdad, fighting with caliph of Spain, allied with Charlemagne, sent envoys to Aachen to gain trust of Charlemagne -He conceded to Charles the right to protect the Holy places and the pilgrims who went to the Holy Land • More expansion in 827, invaded Sicily, conquered entire island, 843 sack of Rome, occupied part of southern France, kept bases until 915 on Italian peninsula, they control the Mediterranean -Helped by dissolution of the Carolingian empire and Byzantium was being besieged on all sides from everyone(Crete, Russians, Mongols, etc) • 888, Battle of Milazzo, Byzantine fleet
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