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The Rise of Islam

Course Code
HIST 2200
Susannah Ferreira

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The Rise of Islam
Spread of Islam
• New phenomenon, developing in Saudi Arabia
• Dramatic expansion from tiny area of nomads to encompassing huge areas
of the old Roman Empire over a hundred years, 622 Muhammad made
outcast, 625 Islamic army captures Damascus, 638 capture Jerusalem, 641
Egypt, 650 entire Persian Empire conquered, 674 besieging Constantinople,
soon it’s on the Chinese borders by 700
• Food shortage in Arabia, internal peace in the area soon sprang up –
allowed military energy to develop which could spread out
• Byzantine and Roman Empire weak due to fighting, Monophystites fighting
in Egypt against the empire Byzantine
• Religious minorities preferred the Islam over Byzantine and it allowed all
religions to flourish under them and not face any persecution, only had to
pay tribute
Eighth-century Expansion
• Encountered Charles Martel at the Pyrenees, his army was the first to
develop the stirrup to better control their horses
• Back in the European sphere, only Charles Martel's defeat of Muslim forces
in the Battle of Tours near Poitiers in 732, combined with Leo III's defeat of
Muslim besiegers at Constantinople in 717, halted the new religious polity's
advances, until ninth century forays into the Mediterranean
• Internal events that checked expansion of Islam on top of outside controls
-Riots and rebellions against the ruling dynasties
-750 Abbasids seize power, move capital from Damascus to Baghdad,
decentralized the nation, retained language and religion but there was
no one
• Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet, easier for them to accept
Christians and Jews than other way around,
Government Policy
• Christian intolerance was what brought some extreme response from
Muslim rulers, in Spain there was 3 religions lived side by side with no
problems for roughly 600 years
Culture & Learning
• Arabians began to take higher culture from other nations
• Universities and scholarly institutes developed, higher mathematics
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