Textbook Notes (362,879)
Canada (158,081)
History (208)
HIST 2250 (12)

The Cultural and Hydrological Development of the Mississippi and Volga Rivers.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
HIST 2250
Mary Ann Cyphers- Reiche

The Cultural and Hydrological Development of the Mississippi and Volga Rivers - Comparative study of “high-modernist” thinking on the enviro - How attitudes towards natural resources in the 1930s – that should be shaped to better serve industrialized society - V provide water for Moscow’s increasing popn, easy access to the Volga from the city, modernization of pre- industrial villages along the canal route - US Army Corps of Engineers used tech advances in navigation engineering to create intercontinental channel permanently transforming the Upper Mississippi into a commercial highway – helped mid-west farmers remain competitive in domestic& international agri markets - Ecological consequences still being seen - Western nations 1930s era of public works fueled by idea science/tech could transform/control the enviro o Blind faith in industrialization - Both had similar outcomes despite diff political ideologies & admin processes - By 1940 no longer free flowing - Drive to modernize supersedes political ideologies - 1930s American & Soviet promoters of public works championed the political systems that realized these projects - M project product of democratic society, V product of the supremacy of Soviet ideology - Soviet men no longer victims of economic forces over which they had no control “high modernist” o Transcends local interests in natural resources conservation and enables govts to undertake large-scale devt, growing self confidence about science/tech - Even before modern times rivers central to national narrative – transport, idealized in lit & arts, folklore - M longest river in N. America - starts N Minnesota and empties into the Gulf of Mexico (diverse habitat) o 3 major sections: headwaters, Upper Mississippi River Basin, Lower Mississippi River - V longest river in Europe: starts NW of Moscow, many streams empty into it, covers 8% of Russia o 3 parts: upper, middle, lower – ends in Caspian Sea - No major changes to either until 20 cent, were viewed in 18 /19 cent as critical transport routes for growing economies - M  Artists depicting, steamboat inspired even more, tours became popular, 1854 Upper Mississippi public relations campaign, some compared it to the Rhine, before railways dominated transportation, growing folklore, experienced pilots needed b/c river unpredictability & tendency to create new channels o Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) began “improvements” on the river in the 1830s  Remove snags, sandbars & shoals to increase passenger& commercial traffic LATER added dams and channels – still remained a challenge to pilot  Not until 1930s when dams/locks were build the river became the commercial highway it is today - V  long tradition in folklore, Russian intellectuals fascinated by o First to suggest improvements for commercial shipping was Tsar Peter the Great: build canal b/w Moscow and the Volga (ship from Moscow to river mouth), after he died small improvements but not his plan until late 1920s under Stalin (need min after freight train routes) o Built to supply water for domestic & industrial uses and provide shipping routes o After built Moscow became port city w access to Caspian, Black, Azov and Baltic seas o When construction began 1931 railways didn’t meet needs of the rapidly industrializing nation (also cheaper travel) - M 9ft channel on Upper Mississippi b/c of railroads monopoly on freight traffic o Before civil war was important commercial highway, rail & river traffic interdependent b/c routes intersected, After production and shipping increased and ppl questioned reliance on rails o 1870s need for increase carrying capacity not primary issue – instead farmers/local businesses unhappy about high fees railroads commanded - Each river became the nations highway but caused enviro & social costs M from mid 1960s businesses sought ways to improve UMRB navigation to make water shipping cost effective – end th 19 cent river trade only some logs (no longer grain) - To accommodate grain & become competitive ACE in 1878 started 4 ½ ft channel, became deeper than planned and the Upper Mississippi River Improvement Association (UMRIA) was formed - Engineering of Mississippi prompted by local demand (unlike the Volga) - B/w 1889 and 1906 commerce on the UMR fell 85% - Lobbying by UMRIA led to authorize 6ft channel in 1907 - Early 20 cent looked promising b/c planning for It to have a bigger role, funding for 6ft channel limited and by mid 1920s still incomplete, realized 6ft not big enough so up to 9ft o Some against the 9ft (small towns, enviro groups), cost exceed potential commercial gains o Soon needed 12ft due to increase traffic o Authorized anyway 1930 but not full funding, gained by 1935 - Documented a
More Less

Related notes for HIST 2250

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.