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Chapter 8

HROB 2090 Chapter 8: Textbook Notes Chapter 8
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8 Pages
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Winter 2018

Department
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
Course Code
HROB 2090
Professor
Bahramirad
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8 Social Influence, Socialization, and Organizational Culture
Information Dependence and Effect Dependence
we depend on others for information about the adequacy and appropriateness of our behaviour,
thoughts and feelings
information dependence gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings and
actions via the signals they send to us
ie. How much work should I take home this weekend? Should we protest a bed decision?
How nice is our boss?
The effects of social information can be very strong, as a result individual behaviour is
influenced and shaped by others.
Effect process includes two complimentary processes:
first, the group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act
because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group
second, the members frequently desire the approval of the group
at an informal level co-workers may reward positive behaviour in the group with praise,
friendship, and a helping hand on the job.
Punishments at the informal level may include nagging, harassment, name calling or social
isolation
The Social Influence Process and Conformity
the most obvious consequence to information dependence and effect dependence is for the
group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group
There are 3 motives for social conformity
First, Compliance, which occurs when the member wishes to acquire rewards from the
group and avoid punishment.
Although the complying member adjust his/her behaviour to the norm, they do not really
subscribe to the beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm
Primarily involves effect dependence
Second, Identification, where the imitation process reveals the motive for conformity, in
which established members of the group serve as models for the behaviour of others.
There are elements of both effect dependence and information dependence, however,
information dependence is especially important
if someone is basically similar to you, then you will be motivated to rely on that person
for information about how to think and act
Thirdly, Internalization, which occurs when individuals have truly and wholly accepted the
beliefs, values and attitudes that underly the norm
conformity is achieved because it is seen as right not because it achieves rewards,
avoids punishment, or pleases others.
Organizational Socialization
the learning process in which new members must acquire knowledge, change their attitudes and
perform new behaviours
the primary means by which organizations communicate their culture and values to new
members
One goal of socialization is to provide new hires with info and knowledge about their role to
avoid problems of role conflict and role ambiguity
an important objective of organizational socialization is for new hires to achieve a good fit,
there are 2 types of fit
first, person-job fit new hires must acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to perform
their work tasks and roles
second, person-organization fit newcomers must learn the values and beliefs that are
important to the group and organization
both types of fit are strongly influenced by socialization process and are related to job attitudes
and behaviours
organizational identification is a primary goal of organizational socialization, to ensure the new
employees learn and understand the key beliefs, values, and assumptions of an organizations
culture.
Stages of Socialization (3)
1. Anticipatory Socialization
occurs before the person ever becomes a member of the organization
formal: process of skill and attitude acquisition (such as attending college/university)
informal: acquiring skill/attitudes through summer jobs or watching portrayals of
organizational life on tv
not all anticipatory socialization is accurate or useful for a new member
2. Encounter
the new recruit, armed with some expectations about organizational life, encounters day-to-
day reality of this life
formal: orientation, rotation through various parts of the organization
informal: getting to know the sty;e and personality of boss’s & co-workers
at this stage the organization is looking for an acceptable level of conformity
3. Role Management
the new members attention shifts to fine tuning and actively managing his/her role in the
organization
the member must also confront balancing the now-familiar organizational role with non-
work roles. The member might begin to internalize the norms / values
Unrealistic expectations
research indicates that people entering organizations often have unrealistic or inaccurate
expectations
once they enter, they realize that their expectation are not being met and they experience what is
known as “reality shock”
new comers who have higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction, organizational
commitment, job performance and job survival and lower intentions to leave
causes for unrealistic expectation:
occupational stereotypes, normally from the media (ie a nurse may have expectation that
come from the TV show “Grey’s Anatomy”
overzealous recruiters, who paint rosy pictures to attract job candidates to the organization
Psychological Contract
people have beliefs when they join an organization about what they will receive in exchange for
what they offer to the organization, these beliefs form what is called the psychological contract
Ex: employee might expect to receive bonuses and promotions in return for hard work / loyalty
breaches in the contract often lead to feelings of anger, betrayal and can have a negative effect
on employees’ work attitudes and behaviours
Why breaches occur:
recruiters often promise more than their organization can provide to attract the best job
applicants
newcomers often lack sufficient information to form accurate perceptions concerning their
psychological contract
organization changes such as restructuring or downsizing
Many of the terms of the psychological contract are formed during anticipatory socialization
Methods of organizational socialization
some organization use external sources to do a fair amount of anticipatory socialization, these
types of organizations are oriented toward maintaining the potential for creative innovative
behaviour from the members
ex: hospitals use medical school, business firms use business school
firms that use internal sources to socialize their new recruits are especially interested in
maintaining the continuity and stability of job behaviours over a period of timetable
ex: police force, military, religious institutions
the point is, organizations difer in who does the socializing, how much is done and how it is
done, however there are methods of socialization (4):
1. Realistic Job Previews
provide “corrective action” to expectations at the anticipatory stage, to balance the
expectations created by the media with reality
organizations would obtain the views of experienced employees about the positive &
negative aspects of the job and incorporate these views into booklets or videos to present
to the prospective employees
Research shows that realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated expectations
and turnover and improving job performance

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Description
Chapter 8 Social Influence, Socialization, and Organizational Culture Information Dependence and Effect Dependence we depend on others for information about the adequacy and appropriateness of our behaviour, thoughts and feelings information dependence gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings and actions via the signals they send to us ie. How much work should I take home this weekend? Should we protest a bed decision? How nice is our boss? The effects of social information can be very strong, as a result individual behaviour is influenced and shaped by others. Effect process includes two complimentary processes: first, the group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group second, the members frequently desire the approval of the group at an informal level coworkers may reward positive behaviour in the group with praise, friendship, and a helping hand on the job. Punishments at the informal level may include nagging, harassment, name calling or social isolation The Social Influence Process and Conformity the most obvious consequence to information dependence and effect dependence is for the group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group There are 3 motives for social conformity First, Compliance, which occurs when the member wishes to acquire rewards from the group and avoid punishment. Although the complying member adjust hisher behaviour to the norm, they do not really subscribe to the beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm Primarily involves effect dependence Second, Identification, where the imitation process reveals the motive for conformity, in which established members of the group serve as models for the behaviour of others. There are elements of both effect dependence and information dependence, however, information dependence is especially important if someone is basically similar to you, then you will be motivated to rely on that person for information about how to think and act Thirdly, Internalization, which occurs when individuals have truly and wholly accepted the beliefs, values and attitudes that underly the norm conformity is achieved because it is seen as right not because it achieves rewards, avoids punishment, or pleases others.
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