Chapter 8 – Social Influence, Socialization, and Organizational Culture
Information Dependence and Effect Dependence
•we depend on others for information about the adequacy and appropriateness of our behaviour,
thoughts and feelings
•information dependence gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings and
actions via the signals they send to us
◦ie. How much work should I take home this weekend? Should we protest a bed decision?
How nice is our boss?
•The effects of social information can be very strong, as a result individual behaviour is
influenced and shaped by others.
•Effect process includes two complimentary processes:
◦first, the group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act
because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group
◦second, the members frequently desire the approval of the group
•at an informal level co-workers may reward positive behaviour in the group with praise,
friendship, and a helping hand on the job.
•Punishments at the informal level may include nagging, harassment, name calling or social
The Social Influence Process and Conformity
•the most obvious consequence to information dependence and effect dependence is for the
group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group
•There are 3 motives for social conformity
◦First, Compliance, which occurs when the member wishes to acquire rewards from the
group and avoid punishment.
▪Although the complying member adjust his/her behaviour to the norm, they do not really
subscribe to the beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm
▪Primarily involves effect dependence
◦Second, Identification, where the imitation process reveals the motive for conformity, in
which established members of the group serve as models for the behaviour of others.
▪There are elements of both effect dependence and information dependence, however,
information dependence is especially important
▪if someone is basically similar to you, then you will be motivated to rely on that person
for information about how to think and act
◦Thirdly, Internalization, which occurs when individuals have truly and wholly accepted the
beliefs, values and attitudes that underly the norm
▪conformity is achieved because it is seen as right not because it achieves rewards,
avoids punishment, or pleases others.