Chapter 4 Notes.pdf

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University of Guelph
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2010
Casey Cosgrove

Chapter 4: Style Approach Description • Researchers studying the style approach determined that leadership is composed of two general kinds of behaviors: ◦ Task Behaviors ◦ Relationship Behaviors • Task Behaviors facilitate goal accomplishments: ◦ They help group members to achieve their objectives • Relationship Behaviors help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves, with each other, and with the situation in which they find themselves • Central purpose of the style approach is to explain how leaders combine these two kinds of behaviors to influence subordinates in their efforts to reach a goal The Ohio State Studies • Believed that the results of studying leadership as a personality trait seemed fruitless and decided to analyze how individuals acted when they were leading a group or an organization • Used a questionnaire called the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) ◦ It was given to 100s of people in educational, military, and industrial settings and results showed that certain clusters of behaviors were typical of leaders • Stogdill (1963) published a shorter version known as LBDQ-XII • Researchers for that subordinates responses on the questionnaire clustered around two general types of leader behaviors: ◦ Initiating structure ◦ Consideration structure • Initiating Structure Behaviors are essentially task behaviors, including acts as organizing work, giving structure to the work context, defining role responsibilities, and scheduling work activities • Consideration Structure Behaviors are essentially relationship behaviors and include building camaraderie, respect, trust, and liking between leaders and followers • The two types of behaviors identified by the LBDQ-XII represent the core of the style approach and are central to what leaders do: ◦ Leaders provide structure for subordinates, and they nurture them • The Ohio State studies viewed these two behaviors as distinct and independent • In some contexts, high consideration has been found to be most effective, but in other situations, high initiating structure is most effective • Some show that being high on both behaviors is the best form of leadership The University of Michigan Studies • They identified two types of leadership behaviors: ◦ Employee Orientation ◦ Production Orientation • Employee Orientation is the behavior of leaders who approach subordinates with a strong human relations emphasis ◦ They take an interest in workers as human beings, value their individuality, and give special attention to their personal needs ◦ It is very similar to the cluster of behaviors identified as consideration in the Ohio State studies • Production Orientation consists of leadership behaviors that stress the technical and production aspect of a job ◦ Workers are viewed as a means for getting work accomplished ◦ It parallels the initiating structure cluster found in the Ohio State Studies • In this study compared to the Ohio State, they conceptualized employee and production orientation as opposite ends of a single continuum ◦ This suggested that leaders who were oriented toward production were less oriented toward employees, and those who were employee oriented were less production oriented • When two behaviors are treated as a independent orientations, leaders are seen as being able to be oriented toward both production and employees at the same time Blake and Mouton's Managerial (Leadership) Grid • This grid is a model that has been used extensively in organizational training and development • The Managerial Grid which has been renamed the Leadership Grid was designed to explain how leaders help organizations to reach their purposes through two factors: ◦ Concern for production ◦ Concern for people • As these factors are described as leadership orientation in the model, they closely parallel the task and relationship leadership behaviors • Concern for production refers to how a leader is concerned with achieving organizational tasks ◦ It involves a wide range of activities, including attention to policy decisions, new product development, process issues, workload, and sales volume, to name a few ◦ It can refer to whatever the organization is seeking to accomplish • Concern for people refers to how a leader attends to the people in the organization who are trying to achieve its goals ◦ This concern includes building organizational commitment and trust, promoting the personal worth of employees, providing good working conditions, maintaining a fair salary structure, and promoting good social relations Authority – Compliance (9,1) • The 9,1 style of leadership places heavy emphasis on task and job requirements, and less emphasis on people, except to the extent that people are tools for getting the job done • Communicating with subordinates is not emphasized • This style is result driven, and people are regarded as tools to that end • The 9,1 leader is often seen as controlling, demanding, hard driving, and overpowering Country-Club Management (1,9) • The 1,9 style represents a low concern for task accomplishment coupled with a high concern for interpersonal relationships • 1,9 leaders stress the attitudes and feelings of people, making sure the personal and social needs of followers are met • They try to create a positive climate by being agreeable, eager to help, comforting and uncontroversial Impoverished Management (1,1) • The 1,1 style is representative of a leader who is unconcerned with both the task and interpersonal relationship • This leader goes through the motions of being a leader but acts uninvolved and withdrawn • The 1,1 leader often has little contact with followers and could be described as indifferent, noncommittal, resigned and apathetic Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) • The 5,5 style describes leaders who are compromisers, who have an intermediate concern for the task and an intermediate concern for the people who do the task • They find balance between taking people into account and emphasizing the wo
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