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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100
Sara Mann

Section 4: Orientation Training Chapter 10: Orientation and Training Orienting Employees Orientation- program that informs new employees about their job & company -short-term, often formal - helps employee perform better cause they’re provided with company rules & practices -once employees have been recruited & selected, next step is orienting them to new company & job -strategic approach to recruitment & retention of employees includes well-integrated orientation program (before & after hiring) -new employees need clear understanding of company policies, expectations regarding their performance & operating procedures -comprehensive orientation (onboarding)can lead to reductions in turnover, increased morale, fewer instances of corrective discipline, fewer employee grievances, & reduce number of workplace injuries Employee orientation (onboarding)- procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm & the job Socialization Socialization- ongoing process of instilling prevailing attitudes, standards, values, & patterns of behaviour that are expected by the organization (process of employees adapting to organization) -long-term process, often informal -involves learning organizations climate Climate-members shared perceptions of the contingencies between behaviours that occur in work -learning what behaviours are expected, acceptable/unacceptable Why is Socialization Important? -sets tone of employment relationship -reduces anxiety for new employees -effects employee performance, & other individual & organizational outcomes Stages of Socialization 1. Anticipatory (Pre-Arrival) -Employees begin with certain expectations about organization and job -Based on company reputation, word of mouth, experiences during recruitment and selection, etc. -May be unrealistic – if unmet, result in dissatisfaction, turnover, etc. -Realistic Job Preview (RJP) may be helpful -Info about job demands and working conditions – both positive and negative aspects 2. Encounter -Employee has started new job -Inconsistencies between expectations and reality emerge -Needs info re: policies, procedures, etc. (Orientation program, Org issues, employee benefits, introductions, Job Duties) 3. Change (Settling in) -Inconsistencies start to get worked out -Employee begins to identify with organization -Transition from being an “outsider” to feeling like an “insider” -Often involves taking on new attitudes, values, and behaviours to align with organization’s -Misalignment = dissatisfaction and turnover Reality shock- state that results from the discrepancy between what the new employees expects from their new job and the realities of it -important to decide on work-related goals with the new employee (provide basis for early feedback & establish foundation for ongoing performance management -online onboarding systems can be provided as soon as new employee accepts job offer are increasingly being used to engage employees more quickly & accelerate employee performance Purpose of Orientation Programs -Reduces employee turnover -Reduces errors and saves time -Develops clear job and organization expectations -Improves job performance -Helps to attain acceptable job performance levels faster -Increases organization stability -Reduces employee anxiety -Reduces grievances -Results in fewer instances of corrective discipline measure Content of Orientation Programs -range from brief, informal introductions to lengthy, formal programs -new employee usually given (over extended time): -handbook that covers matters like company history & current mission, working hours, attendance expectations, vacations & holidays, payroll, employee benefits, pensions, work regulations & policies(personal use of computer technology) -tour of company facilities & introductions to the employee’s supervisor & co-workers -explanation of job procedures, duties & responsibilities -summary of training to be received (when & why) -explanation of performance appraisal criteria (estimated time to achieve full productivity) Responsibility for Orientation -first day of orientation usually starts with HR specialist explaining matter(working hours & vacation), employee then is introduced to their new supervisor who continues orientation by explaining the exact nature of the job introducing the person to new collogues & familiarizes new employee with workplace -sometimes another employee will be assigned as a “buddy” or mentor for the new employee for the first few weeks or months of employee -good for HR department to follow up with each new employee about three months after the initial orientation to address any remaining questions Special Orientation Situations Diverse Workforce -orientating new employees from different backgrounds pose special challenge for organizations that have not had diverse workplace in past -new employees should be advised to expect variety of reactions from current employees to someone from a different background & be given some tips on how to deal with these reactions (particularly, need to know reactions that are prohibited under human rights legislation & how to report these, if they occur) Mergers & Acquisitions -employees hired into newly merged company need to receive information about details of the merger/acquisition as part of the information on company history (need to know ongoing, unresolved difficulties regarding day-to-day operational issues related to their work) Union Versus Non-Union Employees -new employees in unionized positions need to be provided with a copy of the collective agreement & be told which information relates specifically to their collective agreement & be told which information relates specifically to their particular job -need to be introduced to their union steward, have payroll deduction of union dues explained, informed of the names of union executive members -new employees (unionized & non-unionized) need to know which jobs are unionized & which aren’t Multi-Location Organizations -new employees in multi-location company need to be made aware of where the other locations are & what business functions are performed in each location Problems with Orientation Programs -often too much info is provided in short time (usually 1 day& the new employee is overwhelmed (have to fill out forms for payroll, benefits, pensions, etc) -little or no orientation is provided, new employees have to seek out answers that arise without understanding of what is expected of them -information provided by HR is too broad (not meaningful to new employee) or too detailed (employee can’t remember it all) Evaluation of Orientation Programs -orientation programs should be evaluated to assess whether they are providing timely, useful information to new employees in a cost-effective manner -three approaches to evaluating orientation programs are: 1. Employee Reaction- interview/survey of new employees opinion on usefulness of orientation program 2. Socialization Effects- review new employees at regular intervals to assess progress toward understanding & acceptance of beliefs, values, & norms of organization 3. Cost/Benefit Analysis- compare orientation costs (printing handbooks, time spent orienting new employees) with benefits of orientation (reduction of errors, rate of productivity efficiency levels) Executive Integration -executives don’t usually participate in formal orientation activities & there’s little planning regarding how they will be integrated into their new position & company -assumption that new executive is professional & know what to do -executives are usually brought in as change agents -executive integration is critical to productive relationship between new executive & organization & is important to review previous successes & failures at executive integration on ongoing basis -key aspects of integration process include: -identify position specifications (particularly ability to deal with & overcome jealous) -provide realistic information to job candidate & provide support regarding reality shock -assess each candidate’s previous record at making organizational transitions -announce the hiring with enthusiasm -stress importance of listening as well as demonstrating competency & promoting more time spent talking with the boss -assist new executives who are balancing work to change cultural norms while they themselves are part of the culture itself Training Process Training- process of teaching employees basic skills/competencies that they need to perform their jobs (showing production worker how to operate new machine) -development is training of long-term nature (aimed to prepare current employees for future jobs within firm) -important to treat training as strategic investment in human capital -can strengthen employee commitment (implies faith in future of company & of individual) Training & Learning -training is essentially learning process, so important to know how people learn -3 main learning styles: auditory (through talking & listeningvisual (through pictures & print)kinesthetic (tactile learning through whole body experience) -training can be enriched by identifying learning styles and personalizing training accordingly ●easier for trainees to understand & remember meaningful material (present material in logical manner after giving overview, use lots of picture’s and relevant examples) ●make sure it’s easy to transfer new skills & behaviours to job (maximize similarity between training & working & provide training practice) -train managers first than employees to send message of importance of training -set up rewards for trainees who successfully complete & integrate new training ●motivate trainee -affects training outcomes independently of any increase in cognitive ability -affected by individual characteristics & training climate -important to provide as much realistic practice as possible -trainees learn best at their own pace & when correct responses are immediately reinforced (“well done”) - for younger employees use of technology can motivate learning (simulations, games, virtual worlds, online networking) ● effectively prepare trainee -pre-training preparation is crucial because it creates perceived need for training in minds of participants -provides preparatory information that will help set the trainees’ expectations about events & consequences of their actions that are likely to occur in the training environment Legal Actions of Training -under human rights & employment equity legislation, several aspects of employee training programs must be assessed in regards to programs impact on designated group members -may have to show why certain members of designated groups weren’t picked for training program -program can’t be unfairly discriminatory (English manual too hard for person who doesn’t speak English well) -negligent training can also be a problem (occurs when employer fails to train adequately & employee subsequently harms a third party, OR when employee is dismissed for poor performance) The 5 Step Training Process -typical training process consists of 5 steps: 1. Needs Analysis -identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance & productivity -analyze audience to ensure program will be suited to their specific levels of education, experience, & skills, as well as their attitudes & personal motivations 2. Instructional Design -gather instructional objectives, methods, media, description of and sequence of content, examples, exercises, & activities(organize them into curriculum that supports adult learning theory & provides blueprint for program development) -make sure all materials (video scripts, leaders guides, participants workboocomplement each other, are written clearly & blend into unified training geared directly to stated learning objectives -carefully & professionally handle all program elements to guarantee quality & effectiveness 3. Validation -introduce & validatbande training before a representative audience (base final revisions on pilot results to ensure program effectiveness) 4. Implementation -when applicable, boost success with a train-the-trainer workshop that focuses on presentation- knowledge & skills in addition to training development 5. Evaluation & Follow Up -evaluates successes and failures -assess programs success according to: -reaction-document learners immediate reactions to the training -learning- use feedback devices or pre- & post-tests to measure what learners have learned -behaviour-note supervisors reactions to learners’ performance following completion of the training (one way to measure degree to which learners apply new skills & knowledge to jobs) -results-determine level of improvement in job performance & assess needed maintenance Step 1: Training Needs Analysis -determine whether training is required -determine what job entails & break it down into subtasks, each to be taught to new employee -assessing needs of current employees more complex because involves added task of deciding whether or not training is solution(performance may be down because of lack of training or because standards aren’t clear or employee’s not motivated) -two main techniques for identifying training needs: ●Task analysis- detailed study of a job to identify skills & competencies it requires so that an appropriate training program can be instituted -analysis of job requirements ●Performance analysis- verifying that there is a performance deficiency & determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through training or through some other means (transferring employee) Task Analysis: Assessing the Training Needs of New Employees -used for determining training needs of employees who are new to their jobs -common for entry-level positions to train inexperienced people Task Analysis Record Form -some employers supplement current job description & specification with task analysis record form (consolidates information regarding the jobs required tasks & skills in a form that’s helpful for determining training requirements) -task analysis record form contains: -Task list – jobs main tasks & subtasks are listed -When & How often Performed – frequency with which the task & subtask s are preformed -Quantity & Quality of Performance – standards of performance of each task & subtask are described in measurable terms -Conditions under which performed -- indicates conditions under which the tasks & subtasks are to be performed -Competencies & Specific Knowledge Required – competencies & specific skills or knowledge required for each task & subtask are listed specifying what knowledge & skills must be taught (heart of task analysis form) -Where Best Learned -- decision as to whether the task is learned best on or off job is based on several considerations (safety) Performance Analysis: Determining the Training Needs of Current Employees -performance analysis means verifying whether there is significant performance deficiency & if so, determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through training or some other means (transferring employee) -first, appraise employee’s performance so firm can compare person’s current performance with what it should be -distinguish between can’t do and won’t do problems Training Objectives -once training needs have been identified, training objectives can be established -concrete, measurable training objectives (within training budgetshould be set and specify what trainee should be able to accomplish after training program -provide focus for the efforts of both the trainee && trainer & provide benchmark for evaluating the success of training program Step 2: Instructional Design Traditional Training Techniques On-the-Job Training - involves having a person learn a job by actually performing it -virtually every employee gets this type of training when they join a firm -usually involves assigning new employees to experienced workers or supervisors who do actual training -relatively inexpensive, trainees learn while producing, no need for expensive off-job facilities (classrooms -enables learning since trainees learn by doing & get quick feedback about their quality of performance Apprenticeship Training -approach began in Middle Ages -involves having the leader/apprentice study under the tutelage of a master craftsperson -apprentices become skilled workers through both classroom instruction & on-the-job training Informal Learning -day-to-day unplanned interactions between new worker and their colleagues -any learning that occurs in which the learning process is not determined or designed by organization Job Instruction Training Job instruction training (JIT)- listing of each job’s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for employees (logical sequence of steps) Classroom Training - primary method of providing corporate training in Canada -quick, simple way to provide knowledge to large groups of trainees -blended learning includes instructor-led training & e-learning (better learning results & higher learner engagement & enthusiasm than expected, relevance to learner improved) Audiovisual Techniques -can be very effective & are widely used (videotapes CDS) --more expensive than conventional lectures but offer some advantages -trainers should consider using them when: -there’s need to illustrate how certain sequence should be followed over time (teaching soldering) – stop action & instant replay, fast/slow motion capabilities are useful -need to expose trained to events not easily demonstrable in live lectures (open heart surgery) -used organization-wide and is too costly to move trainers from place to place -3 options for audiovisual material buying existing product, making one, or using a production company Videoconferencing- connecting two or more distant groups by using audiovisual equipment (important for trainee to arrive early & test equipment) Programed Learning Programmed learning- systematic method for teaching job skills that involves presenting questions or facts, allowing the person to respond, & giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of their answer -reduces training time by about 1/3 -lets trainees learn at their own pace, provides immediate feedback, & reduces risk of error -don’t learn much more than they would from traditional textbook Vestibule or Simulated Training Vestibule or simulated training- training employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in airplane pilot training, whereby training costs & hazards can be reduced -aims to obtain the advantages of on-the-job training without actually putting employee on the job -necessity when its too costly or too dangerous to train employees on the job (new employee on assembly line may slow down production) E-Learning E-learning- delivery & administration of learning opportunities & support via computer, networked, and web-based technology -requires good instructural design (critical to motivate learners by describing the benefits they will gain from training, providing content designed to the learners specific needs, & offering interactivity -three major types of e-learning: 1.Computer-Based Training (CBT) -trainee uses computer-based system to interactively increase their knowledge or skills -almost always involves presenting trainees with integrated computerized simulations & using multimedia (video, audio, text, graphito help trainee learn how to do the job -instructional consistency (computers, unlike humans, don’t have good/bad days), mastery of learning (if trainee doesn’t learn it they can’t move on to mastery of learning), flexibility for the trainee & increased trainee motivation 2. Online Training -costs about 50% less than traditional classroom-based training -ideal for adults who learn what they want, when they want, & where they want -usually best for highly specialised business professionals with little time for ongoing education -students thrive in online training -ideal for global organizations that want consistent training for all employees worldwide 3. Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) Electronic performance support systems- computer-based job- aids or sets of computerized tools & displays that automate training, documentation, & phone support -provides support faster, cheaper, & more effective than traditional paper-based job aids (manuals) Step 3 &4 : Validation and Implementation -validation of training program that has been designed is often overlooked -to ensure program will accomplish objectives, necessary to conduct pilot study or “run through” with representative group of trainees (used to assess effectiveness of training) -revisions to program can be made to address any problems that are encountered by pilot group -testing at end of pilot study measures whether or not the programs producing the desired improvement in skill level -once programs validated it’s ready to be implemented by professional trainers Step 5: Evaluation of Training -important to assess return on investment of human capital made through training by determining whether the training actually achieved the objectives Transfer of training- application of the skills acquired during the training program into the work environment, and the maintenance of these skills over time -number of actions can be taken before, during, & after training program to enhance transfer of training -before training, potential trainees can be assessed on their level of ability, aptitude & motivation regarding the skill to be taught, & those with higher levels can be selected for the training program -during the training, it is important to provide frequent feedback, opportunities for practice, & positive reinforcement -goal-setting & relapse-prevention techniques to increase the likelihood of applying what they have learned -management can enhance transfer of training by providing opportunities to apply new skills & by continuing to provide positive reinforcement of the new skills while being tolerant of errors -after trainees complete training (or at planned intervals during the training) program should be evaluated to see how well its objectives have been met & the extent to which transfer of training has occurred -two basic issues to address when evaluating a training program -design of the evaluation study -training effect to be measured Individual Influences on Transfer of Training  Set proximal goals  Set specific goals  Engage in self-talk  Relapse prevention (brainstorm problems and how to overcome them)  Mental imagery Organizational Influences on Transfer of Training  Relates to trainee’s outcome expectancies  Will the behaviour lead to desired outcomes?  Rewards, pay, & promotion  Are there rewards for demonstrating the new behaviour?  Environmental constraints / obstacles  Lack of equipment, information, time, etc.  Supervisory and peer support  Reinforce training: provide opportunities, reward  Train coworkers together – reinforce each other  Organization’s learning climate  Learning is encouraged, supported, rewarded, etc. Controlled experimentation- formal methods for testing the effectiveness of a training program, preferably with a control group & with tests before & after training -data should be obtained both before & after the training effort in the training group -four basic categories of training outcomes can be measured: -1. Reaction- evaluate trainees reactions to the program -2. Learning- test the trainees to determine whether they learned the principles, skills, & facts that they were supposed to learn -3. Behaviour- ask whether trainees behaviour on the job changed because of training program -4 Results- see if improvements are important -when measuring training effects, should keep in mind: -there are usually only modest correlations among four types of training criteria (scoring high on learning doesn’t necessarily mean that behaviour or results will also score high and the converse is true as well -reaction me
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