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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100
Sara Mann

Section 3: Designing And Analysing Jobs Chapter 7: Designing and Analyzing Jobs Organizing Work For Strategic Success -organization consists of one or more employees who perform various tasks -relationship between people & tasks must be structured so that the organization achieves its strategic goals in efficient and effective manner through a motivated and engaged workforce Organizational structure- formal relationships among jobs in an organization Organization chart- “snapshot” of firm, depicting organizations structure at a particular point in time -designing organization involves choosing structure that’s appropriate, given company’s strategic goals -three common types of organizational structure: bureaucratic, flat, matrix Job Design Job design- process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform specific job -organizations strategy and structure influence ways which jobs are designed Job- group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of incumbents -ideally, job should be clear and distinct from those of other jobs and should involve natural units of work that are similar and related Position- collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person (department with 1 supervisor, 1 clerk, 40 assemblers, there are 42 positions and 3 jobs) Job Specialization Work simplification- approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (planning & organizing) to supervisors & managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established & specified by management -work can be broken down into clearly defined, highly specialised, repetitive tasks to maximise efficiency -can increase operating efficiency in stable environment & may be appropriate in settings employing individuals with intellectual disabilities or those lacking education and training -not effective in changing environment in which customers/clients demand customer-designed products and/or high-quality services, or one in which employees want challenging work -simplified jobs often lead to lower satisfaction, higher rates of absenteeism & turnover, sometimes demand for premium pay to compensate repetitive nature of work Industrial engineering- field of study concerned with analyzing work methods, making work cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks, & establishing time standards -concerned with analyzing work methods & establishing time standards to improve efficiency -industrial engineers systematically identify, analyze, and time the elements of each job’s work cycle and determine which, if any, elements can be modified, combined, rearranged, or eliminated to reduce the time needed to complete the cycle -too much emphasis on concerns of industrial engineering (improving efficiency & simplifying work methods) may result in human considerations being neglected or downplayed -to be effective, job design must satisfy human psychological and physiological needs Behavioural Aspects of Job Design Job enlargement (horizontal loading)- technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves assigning workers additional tasks as the same level of responsibility to increase number of tasks they have to perform Job rotation- technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves systematically moving employees from one job to another Job enrichment (vertical loading)- any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties -involves increasing autonomy and responsibility by allowing employees to assume greater roles in decision-making process (increasing level of difficulty & responsibility of job, assigning workers more authority and control over outcomes, providing feedback about individual or unit job performance directly to employees, adding new tasks require training (providing opportunity for growth)) -not all employees want responsibility & challenge -almost always fails when employees lack physical or mental skills or education needed to perform job Team-based job designs- focus on giving a team, rather than individual, a whole and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work Team- small group of people with complementary skills, who work toward common goals for which they hold joint responsibility and accountability Ergonomic Aspects of Job Design Ergonomics- seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs (aims to adapt the entire job system (work, environment, machines, equipment, processes) to match human characteristics) -reduces or eliminates product defects, damage to equipment, worker injuries, illness caused by poor work designs -help in meeting unique requirements of individuals with special needs (elderly, disabled) Increasing Job Flexibility -rapid product and technological change, global competition, deregulation, political instability, demographic changes, shift to service industry has increased need for firms to be responsive, flexible and competitive -work now more cognitively complex, more team-based & collaborative, more dependent on social skills & technological competence, more time pressured, more mobile, less dependent on geography means organizations focus more on personal competencies and skills in job analysis, hiring, and compensation management, rather than specific duties and tasks The Nature of Job Analysis -once jobs have been designed or redesigned an employer’s performance-related expectations need to be defined and communicated Job analysis- procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, & abilities) required to perform it -process which information about job is systematically gathered & organized -used to develop job descriptions (what job entailsand job specifications (what human requirements are) 6 Steps in Job Analysis 1. Identify use of information to determine the types of data that should be collected & techniques used -some data collection techniques (interviews)are good for writing job descriptions and selecting employees for the job -other data collection techniques provide numerical ratings for each job which can be used to compare jobs for compensation purposes 2. Review relevant background information (organization charts, process charts and existing job descriptions) Process chart- diagram showing flow of inputs and outputs from the job under study 3. Select representative positions and jobs to be analysed -necessary when there are many incumbents in single job & when number of similar jobs are to be analysed because it would be too time-consuming to analyse every job & position 4. Analyse jobs by collecting data on job activities-required by employee behaviours, working conditions, human traits, & abilities needed to perform the job (using one or more of the job analysis techniques) 5. Review the information with job incumbents -information should be verified with any workers performing the job and with the immediate supervisor 6. Develop job description & job specification, which are two concrete products of job analysis Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information -various qualitative & quantitative techniques are used to collect information about duties, responsibilities, and requirements of the job -collecting data usually involves joint effort by HR specialist(HR manager, job analyst, consultant -- may observe & analyse the work being done and then develop a job description & specifincumbent & jobholder’s supervisor (filing out questionnaires, review & verify the job analysts conclusions regarding job duties, responsibilities & requirements) Qualitative Job Analysis Techniques The Interview -most widely used method for determining the duties & responsibilities of a job -three types of interviews are used to collect job analysis data; 1. individual interview- with each employee 2. group interview- employees who have the same job; used when large number of employees are performing similar or identical work and can be quick & inexpensive way of learning about job 3. supervisory interviews- one or more supervisors who are thoroughly knowledgeable about the job being analysed -best interviews follow structured or checklist format (job analysis questionnaire, series of detailed questions regarding matters such as general purpose of the job, responsibilities & duties, education, experience & skills required, physical & mental demands, working conditions) Guidelines: -job analyst & supervisor should work together to identify employees who know the job best as well as those who might be expected to be the most objective in describing their duties -structured guide or checklist that lists questions and provides spaces for answers should be used (ensures crucial questions are identified ahead of time, that complete and accurate information is gathered, and that all interviewers get the same type of data, to ensure comparability of re) -- leeway should be permitted by including some open ended questions (“anything we didn’t cover with their questions?”) -when duties are not performed in regular manner (when incumbent doesn’t perform the scene tasks for jobs over and over again many times a day) the incumbent should be asked to list their duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence to ensure crucial activities that occur infrequently aren’t overlooked -data should be reviewed and verified by both the interviewee and their immediate supervisor Questionnaires -employees’ filling out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities is another method of getting job analysis information -major decision - determining how structured questionnaire should be & what questions to include - structured checklists (each employee is presented with a long list of specific duties or tasks analysed indicate whether not be performed each and if so how much time zones spent on a - open ended and simply ask the employee to describe a major duties of his or her job -typical job analysis often uses old open any questions and checklist Observation -direct observation is especially useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities -janitors, assembly line workers, accounting clerks -usually not appropriate one job entails a lot of immeasurable mental activity (lawyer, design engineer) -direct observation interviewing often used together Participant Diary/Log Diary/Log- daily listings made by employees of every activity in which they engage, along with the time each activity takes -each employee records activity their involved with (&time spent) in a log -can produce very complete picture of the job -employee might try to exact reason activities and underplayed others (detailed, chronological nature tends to minimize this) Advantages and Disadvantages of Qualitative Methods - Interviews, questionnaires, observation, and participant diaries/logs are qualitative in nature and our most popular methods for gathering job analysis data -provide realistic information about what job incumbents but actually do and the qualifications and skills required Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques -when aim is assign quantitative value to each job so that jobs can be compared for pay purposes, a more quantitative job analysis approach may be better Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Position Analysis Questionnaire-used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities at various jobs -structured job analysis questionnaire -filed by job analyst, who should already be acquainted with a particular job to be analyzed -contains 194 items each which represents a basic element that may or may not play an important role in the job -job analyst decides whether each item plays a role in the job and, if so, to what extent -provides quantitative score or profile of the job in terms of how the job rates on six basic dimensions: 1. Information 2. work output (physical activities and tools) 3. Mental processes 4. Relationships with others 5. job context (physical and social environment) 6. Other job characteristics (pace and structure) -results can be used to compare jobs with one another, this information can then be used to determine appropriate pay levels Functional Job Analysis (FJA) Functional Job Analysis- (quantitative method)rates job on responsibilities for data, people & things from simple to complex. Performance standards & training requirements are also identified National Occupational Classification (NOC) National Occupational Classification (NOC)- reference tool for writing job descriptions and job specifications. Compiled by federal government, it contains comprehensive, standardised descriptions of about 30 000 occupations and the requirements for each Internet-Based Job Analysis -face to face interviews & observations can be slow & time-consuming -information (usually collected orally or in writis difficult to update quickly -web-based job analysis surveys are becoming increasingly common Using Multiple Sources of Job Analysis Information -job analysis information can be obtained from individual workers, groups, supervisors, or observers -interviews, observations, or questionnaires can be used -some firms only use single approach, but when possible it is better to have job analysis data collected from several sources (since some members feel pressure to go along with group’s consensus, or employee may be careless how they complete questionnaire) Writing Job Descriptions and Job Specifications Job description- list of the duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, and working conditions of a job—one product of job analysis -written statement of what the jobholder actually does, how they do it, and under what conditions the jobs performed -no standard form is used for writing job descriptions, but most include: ●Job identification-generally contains several categories of information -position title specifies the title of j(vice president, marketing manager, recruiter, inventory control clerk) -department, location, & supervisors title (reports to) are indicated ●Job summary-describes general nature of the job, listing only its major functions or activities ●Relationships-indicates jobholders relationships with others inside & outside organization members -people directly & indirectly supervised peers, supervisors, & outsiders relevant to job are included ●Duties & Responsibilities-presents detailed list of the jobs major duties & responsibilities ●Authority of Incumbent -define limits of the jobholders authority, including decisions-making authority, direct supervision of other employees, budgetary limitations ●Performance Standards --indicates standards the employee is expected to achieve in each of the job description’s main duties & responsibilities ●Working Conditions-list general working conditions involved in job (noise level, temperature, lighting, degree of privacy, frequency of interruptions, hours of work, amount of travel, hazards to which the incumbent may be exposed) ●Job Descriptions & Human Rights Legislation-requires employees to ensure there’s no discrimination on any of the prohibited grounds in any aspect of terms & conditions of employment -job descriptions are not legally required but highly recommended -essential job duties should clearly be identified on job description. Indicating the percentage of time spent on each duty and/or listing duties in order of importance are strategies used to differentiate between essential and nonessential tasks & responsibilities -when assessing suitability for employment, training program, enrollment & transfers should be knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA’s) required for the essential duties of the job -when employee can’t perform 1 or more of essential duties because of reasons related to a prohibited group (physical disability or religreasonable accommodation to the point of undue hardship is required Job Specifications Job specification- list of “human requirements” – requisite knowledge, skills, & abilities needed to perform the job – another product of a job analysis -clarifies what kind of person to recruit and fo which qualities that person should be tested -complying with human rights legislation keep in mind: -all listed qualifications are bona fide occupational requirements (BFORs) based on the current job duties & responsibilities -unjustifiably high educational and/or lengthy experience requirements can lead to systematic discrimination -the qualifications of current incumbent should not be confused with a minimum requirements, since they may be underqualified or overqualified - for entry level jobs, identifying the actual physical and mental demands is critical Physical demands analysis-identification of the senses used and the type, frequency, and amount of physical effort and involved in a job (often used to supplement the job specification) -identified human requirements for job can be accomplished through a judgmental approach (based on educated guesses of job incumbents, supervisors, and HR managers) or statistical analysi(based on the relationship between some human trait of skill and some criterion of job of effectiveness) -based in job specifications on statistical analysis is more legally defensible Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF)- survey instrument designed to assist managers in identifying potential Personality-Related traits that maybe important a job -use questionnaire items to assess relevance of such basic personality dimensions as agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability to the job under study -once required human characteristics determined at jobs specification form should be completed that Competency-Based Job Analysis -many employees & job analysis experts say traditional job analysis procedures can’t go on playing a central role in HR management -in high-performance work environments in which employers need workers to seamlessly move from job to job and exercise self-control, job descriptions based on lists of job-specific duties may actually inhibit(fail to encourageflexible behaviour companies need Competencies- demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of the job (in order to perform this job competently, the employee should be able to…) Competency-based job analysis- describing job in terms of the measurable, observable behavioural competencies (knowledge, skills, &/or behaviou) an employee must exhibit to do a job well -worker focused Three Reasons to Use Competency Analysis -there are three reasons to describe jobs in terms of competencies rather than duties 1. High performance work system- traditional job descriptions may backfire ; encourage employees to work in a self-motivated way, organize work around teams, encourage team members to rotate freely among jobs (each with its own skill set) (Employees must be enthusiastic about learning and moving among jobs) -Giving someone a job description with a list of specific duties may simply breed a “that’s not my job” attitude, by compartmentalizing workers too narrowly 2. More strategic. Describing job skills, knowledge & competencies worker needs to be more strategic. 3. Performance management process. Measurable skills, knowledge, & competencies support employer’s performance management process -training, appraisals, & rewards should be based on fostering & rewarding skills & competencies required to achieve work goals -describe job in terms of skills & competencies facilitates understanding of those required competencies Examples of Competencies -may include general or core competences (reading, writing, mathematical reasoning), leadership competencies (leadership, strategic thinking, teaching others), technical/functional competencies (focus on specific technical competencies required for specific types of jobs and/or occupations) -some technical competencies for the job of systems engineer might include the following: -design complex applications, establish protocols, & create prototypes -establish necessary platform requirements to efficiently & completely coordinate data transfer -prepare comprehensive & complete documentation including specifications, flow diagrams, process patrols, & budgets Writing Competency-Based Job Descriptions -defining & writing job competencies involves process that is similar in most respects to traditional job analysis (manager will interview job incumbents & their supervisors, ask open-ended questions regarding job responsibilities & activities, & perhaps identify critical incidents that pinpoint success on the job Chapter 8: Recruitment The Strategic Importance of Recruitment -human talent is beginning to be referred to as the world’s most sought-after commodity Recruitment- process of searching out & attracting qualified job applicants, which begins with the identification of a position that requires staffing and is completed when resumes and/or completed application forms are received from an adequate number of applicants -authority for recruitment is usually delegated to HR staff members, except in small businesses, where line managers usually recruit their own staff Recruiter- specialist in recruitment, whose job it is to find & attract capable candidates -Gain a competitive advantage -Diversity Management -Choose to recruit either skilled external candidates or internal candidate(to develop internally) -amount of recruitment budget affects the quality of recruits The Recruitment Process -employers must remain permanently visible to potential employees, establishing & maintaining relationships with potential candidates before they begin pursuing a new job -purpose of employer brand is to attract people to apply to work at the organization, & earn the loyalty of current employees Employer Branding- image or impression of an organization as an employer based on the benefits of being employed by the organization -experience of an employee when working for a company, based on feelings, emotions, senses, realities, & benefits (functional benefits such as personal development, economic benefits such as monetary rewards, and psychological benefits such as feelings of purpose, belonging, & recognition) -essentially a promise made to employees & their perception of how well that promise is delivered -particularly important during recruitment process, not just for applicants who are eventually hired but also for those not hired who are out in the marketplace communicating their experience as an applicant to other job-seekers -inconsiderate recruiting practices can be brand suicide for companies -branding includes the experiences a candidate goes through while interacting with a company throughout the recruitment process, including: -what candidates experience when they go to the company’s website -whether HR sends an acknowledgement letter or email thanking each candidate who sends in a resume -how candidates are greeted by the receptionist when they make initial contact by phone or in person -whether the HR person who interviews candidates is a good spokespersons who can articulate the organizations values & culture -employer branding involves three steps: 1. define the target audience, where to find them, and what they want from an employer (target group may be one of the four generations in today’s workforce, the underemployed, or four employment equity groups) 2. develop the employee value proposition (specific reasons why the organization is a unique place to work and a more attractive employer for the target audience compared to other organizations) -use of concrete facts, programs, policies, survey results, & information will clearly portray the organization as an employer of choice -important to ensure that current managers are prepared to deliver the value proposition by guiding & mentoring employees 3. communicate the brand by incorporating the value proposition into all recruitment efforts -communication should reinforce & remind current & potential employees of promises in the employee value proposition & of the organizations ability to deliver it though their managers -integrated marketing approach to internal and external communication should use various channels such as tv, radio, print, websites Recruitment Process Constraints on Recruitment -constraints arise from organizational policies: -promote-from-Within Policies (gives present employees the first opportunities) -compensation Policies (Need to adhere to stated pay ranges) -employment Status Policies (Unionized setting may restrict the hiring of part-time, temporary, and contract employees; may restrict hiring employees with second jobs) -International Hiring Policies(may require hiring of local citizens) Recruiting Within the Organization -current employees are generally largest source of recruits (internal recruiting) -filing open positions with inside candidates have several advantages: -committed to company’s goals, less likely to leave -familiar with organization and culture -Lower recruitment costs (less orientation) -employees have proven their ability -Improves workplace morale and motivation -generally safer to promote within because firm is likely to have accurate assessment of person’s skills & -recruiting internally also has drawbacks: -internal rivalry - Poor morale of employees who are not selected - No “new blood” -managers may have to post all job openings & interview all inside candidates, even when they already know who they want to hire (waste of time & creating false hope for employees who are not genuinely being considered) -rarely possible to fill all non-entry level jobs with current employees -upper level or middle level jobs may vacant unexpectedly with no internal replacements -external candidates are increasingly being considered in order to meet strategic objectives -hiring externally may be preferable to acquire latest knowledge & expertise or gain new ideas & revitalize the department or organization Job Posting Job Posting- process of notifying current employees about vacant positions -most companies now use computerized job-posting systems, where information about job vacancies can be found on companies intranet (or bulletin boards or publications) (notice outlining job title, duties (as listed in job description), qualifications (taken from job specification), hours of work, pay range, posting date, closing date -provides every qualified employee with chance for transfer or promotion -reduces likelihood of special deals & favoritism -demonstrates the organizations commitment to career growth & development -communicates to employees organizations policies & guidelines regarding promotions & transfers -provides equal opportunities to all qualified employees -unsuccessful job candidates may become demotivated, demoralized, discontented, unhappy if feedback is not communicated in timely & sensitive manner -tensions may rise if it appears that a qualified internal candidate was passed over for an equaly qualified or less qualified external candidate -decision about which candidate to select may be more difficult if there are two or more equally qualified candidates Human Resources Records -consulted to ensure qualified people are notified in person when there are vacant positions -employee files (resumes, application forms) may show employees who are working under their education/skill level or who already have KSAs or potential to move into available positions with some additional training Skill Inventories -ensures qualified internal candidates are identified & considered for transfer or promotion when opportunity arises Recruiting Outside the Organization -replacement from outside must eventually be found to fill job -in most entry-level positions external recruiting’s used -type of job being filed should be considered when recruiting externally - can acquire skills that is not available within the organization -newer ideas may emerge -generation of a larger pool of qualified candidates, which may have a positive impact on quality of the selection decision -availability of more diverse applicant pool, which can assist in meeting employment equity goals & timetables -eliminates rivalry of competition caused by employees jockeying for transfers & promotions, which can hinder interpersonal & interdepartmental cooperation -potential cost savings resulting from hiring individuals who already have skills needed (rather than providing training) -Newcomers may not fit -Newcomers need to learn about the org and its culture -More expensive -Lower morale of employees who don’t see career growth within the firm External Recruitment Methods ●Online Recruiting -majority of companies now use online recruitment & majority of Canadian workers use internet to research prospective employers, review job postings, complete online applications, & post their resumes -provides job postings to large audience & vast talent pool -Internet Job Boards -fast, easy, convenient & allow recruiter to search for candidates for positions in 2 ways: 1. for a fee, companies can post job opening online & customize it by using corporate logos & adding details about the company benefits & culture -job seekers can search through job postings, by type, region, or other criteria, & apply to position online 2. job seekers can post resumes on job boards and firms can search the database for candidate -Corporate Websites -employers now use own corporate website to recruit -career pages promotes employer brand, educates applicant about company, captures data about the applicant, & provides an important link to job boards where a company’s positions may be advertised -virtual workplace tours can be used -best practices for career websites includes: -candid info about company culture, career paths, & business prospects -3 party sources of information on your company (articles, rankings, rewards) -design separate sections for different types of job seekers (students, parttimers) -have direct link from homepage to career page -have job search tool that allows applicants to search open job positions by location & job category -have standardised application or resume builder to allow for easy applicant screening -use “email to a friend” options for visitor referrals ● Social Networking Sites -many organizations are turning to social networking sites (Facebook) to find young, tech-savvy recruits -can create company profile where they can post jobs & publicize company brand -opportunity to connect with millions of other users at little or no cost -possibility of unhappy employees or customers posting negative comments on the site ● Print Advertisements -traditional advertising in print media is still common -must address the media to be used & construction of ad -ad should attract attention (stand out, have borders, company logo, key positions, effective use of empty white space, be in display ads rather than classified ads) -should develop interest in hob (created by nature of job, location, working conditions) -should create desire for job (point out unique benefits or opportunities, stressing employers commitment to employment equity target audience should be kept in mind) -ad should instigate action (call today, closing date, send resume today, check out website for more information, etc.) -when properly constructed can be effective instruments for recruiting * communicating company’s corporate image to general public -two general types of newspaper ads: 1. Want ads- describe the job & its specifications, compensation package, hiring employer, address applications and/or resumes should be submitted to 2. Blind ad- identify & address of the employer are omitted (less people like applying to blind ads because there’s always danger of unknowingly sending a resume to the firm at which they are currently employed ●Private Employment Agencies -usually used to help employers seeking clerical staff, functional specialists, & technical employees -agencies rely on internet job boards, advertising, walk-ins/write-Ins to solicit job seekers for an organization -usually agency fee is paid by employer (usually on commission basis) -expand applicant pool & perform preliminary interviewing & screening -may be used when: -organization doesn’t have HR department or doesn’t have time/expertise to find employee -firm has experienced difficulty in generating a pool of qualified candidates for the position or a similar type of position in the past -particular opening must be filled quickly -there’s desire to recruit greater number of designated group members than the firm has been able to attract on its own -recruitment effort is aimed at reaching individuals who are currently employed & may feel more comfortable answering ads placed by & dealing with an employment agency ● Executive Search Firms -firms specialize in particular type of talen(executives, sales, scientific, middle-management employees) -can’t do effect
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