Appendix B 1-9 HROB REVIEW.docx

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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100
Sara Mann

Section 1: 1. What is the difference between internal and external attribution? Given an example of a behavior and how a manager decides to attribute that behavior to internal or external factors. Internal attribution is saying the cause for behavior is something that is internal to the person like their personality, feelings or abilities. external attribution is said the cause for behavior is something that is external to the person due to situational behaviors or pressure from others.  An example of this would be if a customer at a coffee shop was unhappy with their coffee, if the manager believed that someone who made the coffee made it wrong and didn‘t know how to make it or was having a bad day and made a mistake, they are making an internal attribution. If they think that the coffee or milk went bad and thats why it tasted wrong, then they are making an external attribution.  -Perception is what you feel based on your experiences at the time. You recognize something in a situation and it registers in your brain. An attribution is assigning motives to situations/behaviours.  -Internal attribution is when the cause or motives of the situation are due to internal factors ( ex. you were late because you are lazy)- perceptions that outcomes are due to the person rather than situation or environment  -External attribution is when the causes or motives of the situation are due to external factors (ex. late bus)- perceptions that outcomes are due to situation or environment rather than the person Attribution Cues (be careful of self serving bias and fundamental attribution error) (When attributing an employees behaviour to internal or external causes, we should ask these questions) - Consistency Cues: Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistency? - Consensus Cues: Do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to this person? - Distinctiveness Cues: Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations or is it distinctive to one situation? 2. Explain the three biases that can occur with attribution, and give an example of each. Three biases that can occur with attribution (biases on pg. 28) - Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviours at the expense of situational explanations - The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behaviour of others - Ex. “its all your fault”; you were late because you are lazy and didn’t wake up early - Self-Serving Bias: Attributing our success to internal factors and our failures to external factors - The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting blame for failures on external factors - Ex. passing the class and thinking it was all because you studied hard; not because the professor was great or the class material was easy. Ex. failing the class and thinking that it was unfair, the material wasn’t taught properly. - Actor-Observer Effect: Propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently - The tendency to attribute our own behavior mainly to situational causes but the behavior of others mainly to internal (dispositional) causes. Perceptual Errors (pg. 26-30) -Primacy: reliance on early, first impressions -Recency: most recent information dominated perceptions -Implicit Personality Theories: Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together. ex. you may believe that hard working people are also honest. -Halo: one trait forms a general impression -Projection/similar to me: believing other people are similar to you and therefore liking them better -Stereotyping: tendency to generalize about people in a social category and ignore variations among them Difference between perceptual Errors and Attributional Errors: Perceptual errors: are errors that occur when we perceive something happening in the workplace: halo effect, similar to me, primacy, recency. (perceiving it) Attributional Errors: is taking what we perceive and then assigning motives and causes to that behaviour (fundamental attribution error and self serving bias) 3. Suppose an employee performs poorly on an assigned project. Discuss the attribution process that this person’s manager will use to form judgements about his poor performance. - the manager is most likely to employ the fundamental attribution error by overestimating internal factors that affected the employees performance. 4. Assume you need to give Dave his performance review this week. His job performance has been low on the job in the past three months a. Explain how you would decide to attribute his behaviour to internal or external factors. - I would determine whether Dave is facing any external factors or if it is due to internal factors, that he cannot live up to his job or not. I would also investigate to see if Dave’s performance has always been poor and just overlooked or if it is just recent in the past three months. b. Do you think that Dave is more likely to attribute his behaviour to internal or external factors? Give examples of external factors. -Due to the theory of the self-serving bias, Dave is more likely to attribute his poor performance to external factors rather than internal factors. c. Since Dave is not performing highly in the job, would you assume that he is not satisfied in his job as well? Most typical managers would blame Dave’s internal factors and assume that Dave is lazy and doesn’t like working and therefore not happy or satisfied with his job. I however would at least consider external factors that could possibly be affecting Dave and his performance at work. Just because his performance is poor doesn’t necessarily mean that he is unsatisfied with his job. d. Do you think that having a high level of emotional intelligence would help you in being more effective in this type of performance appraisal (where negative feedback will be given) Having a high level of emotional intelligence would help in being more effective in this type of performance appraisal due to the fact that you would be able to consider external factors as well as internal factors equally when giving a performance appraisal. It would also allow a manager to take into consideration whether he has high or low self- esteem, which could affect his motivation at work. Someone with a high level of EI OR EQ is self-aware, can control his/her impulses, is self motivated, and demonstrates empathy and social awareness. e. What errors should you keep in mind when conducting his performance appraisal? (ex. what are some errors managers typically make when conducting performance appraisals?) Some things to consider when conducting a performance appraisal is that everyone is different and to approach everyone in a different manner. As a manger you have to be able to understand different personalities and behaviours and how well they take their performance appraisal. Job satisfaction is not a strong predictor of job performance and therefore managers shouldn’t assume that and employees behaviour or personality as an internal factor of poor performance. f. How you handle this performance issue is critical in determining whether or not Dave will improve his performance. As his manager, how could you use operant learning theory to try to improve his performance? As his manager, I would create an incentive program to motivate Dave and implement punishments for slacking to discourage low job performance. g. As his manager, how could you use social cognitive theory to try to improve his performance? The social cognitive theory suggests that we learn behaviours through observation, motivation and positive re-enforcements. I would use the social cognitive theory to observe, understand and predict his behaviour and identify methods in which Dave can identify with his job. This type of social learning would motivate Dave by giving positive feedback and re- enforcements when his job performance is high. h. Is there anything about Dave’s personality you would take into consideration when conducting his performance appraisal and deciding how to manage his performance? I would take into consideration whether or not Dave has high or low level of self-esteem so as not to hurt his ego when conducting the performance appraisal. Having a high level of EI is also important so that you don’t discourage Dave but rather give him constructive feedback to increase his job performance. Personality and Individual Differences The personality and individual differences of your employees DEPENDS on: -Your management style, your leadership style, how your going to motivate your employees -the type of person your going to select to work in the company -the type of interview questions your going to ask *important to put the right individual in the right job, group or organization and exposing different employees to different leadership skills. Concept of FIT: a certain personality may or may not fit within the organization or culture *could have a person who fits great with the job but doesn‘t fit with the culture or vice versa* 1. If you were hiring for a position within your dept., would you hire a certain type of personality? Would you give them a test during the hiring process? Legally, can you do that? Yes however it depends – on the culture of the organization and the fit between the person’s personality and the job and/or the culture of the organization. Legally, it is allowed to test personality if you can prove that a certain personality can perform better than others. 2. What would the personality of an ideal employee look like? The personality of an ideal employee would generally be a positive personality, with a high level of conscientiousness and agreeableness. Their personality would be that of a responsible employee who is achievement/goal oriented. The rest would have to depend on the job and the organization. 3. What behaviours/outcomes in the workplace has personality been shown to be linked to?  Emotional Stability is linked to less negative thinking and fewer negative thoughts, which affects higher job and life satisfaction and lower stress levels. Chart on.  Extraversion is linked to better interpersonal skills, greater social dominance, and extravert are mire emotionally repressive which leads to a higher job performance, enhanced leadership and high job and life satisfaction.  Openness is linked to increased learning, higher creativity and flexibility, which results in training performance, enhanced leadership and more acceptable to change.  Agreeableness is linked to being better liked and being more compliant and conforming which results in higher performance on the job and lower levels of deviant behaviour.  Conscientiousness is linked to greater efforts and persistence, more drive and discipline, and better organization and planning skills, which result in higher performance on the job, enhanced leadership and greater longevity. pg 37 4. What type of personalities are typically high performers? People that are high in agreeableness and conscientiousness. (See q.3) 5. What other dynamics/outcomes within a team would be affected by personality differences? The quality of the decision and the length of time that the team takes to make the decision. 6. What is EQ? Is it important for a manger to have a high level of EQ? Why or why not? EQ or emotional quotient, also known as emotional intelligence, is the ability to monitor one’s own emotions and the emotions of others and to use that knowledge to guide thoughts and actions. EQ is important because it is a strong predictor of leadership and job performance as someone with a high level of EQ is self-aware, self motivated, can control impulses, and demonstrates empathy and social awareness. 7. Why is it important for you as a manager to be aware that different employees have different personalities? Because personality affects job performance, motivation, quality of decision and length of time it takes to make decisions on teams. If there are conflicts it is beneficial to understand where each person is coming from as well. It is also beneficial to understand that people have different personalities, so as a manager you know how to motivate different employees in different ways. Values, Attitudes and Behavior Values: are broad(apply to many situations, overall value system). How we learned to think about how things have to be, and what is right and wrong, they usually influence your attitude and behavior Attitudes: are specific to the job. They are your thoughts and statements towards how you are feeling about your surroundings, these can be both positive and negative. *Attitudes are not the same as values though, attitudes can affect how you work if you don‘t believe something is right, values are just morals of what you belief is right and what is important to you* 1. What is the difference between values and attitudes? the key difference between values and attitudes is that values are built in and transcend all situations and attitudes are perceptions specific to a situation 2. How have changes in the workplace affected an employee’s commitment? -affective commitment- when you want to work -continuance commitment- you feel as if you have to work not because you want to or should - normative- you feel as if you should work not because you want to or have to Continuance has declined which then has increased effective 3. Is job satisfaction related to job performance? Is it more related to certain dimensions of performance? If you are happier 4. How would you as a manager instil feelings of distributive, procedural and interactional justice? –distributive justice – we want our employees to feel that rewards are distributed fairly and evenly -procedural justice – when people feel that the processes used to make the decisions are fair -interactional justice- treating people with respect which inturn increases motivation 5. Given what we know, is it important for our employees to be satisfied with their jobs? What can you do to improve the likelihood of your employees being satisfied with their jobs? Yes it is important to make sure that employees are satisfied with their jobs because as we know and research has shown the job satisfaction is positively correlated to job performance. 6. What type of commitment is most important for your employees to have and why? Effective commitment is the most important type of commitement for employees to have because that shows that they are satisfied with their job and they want to be there, not because the have to be or that they have no other choice and should be there. When employees are satisfied with their jobs and WANT to be there, this further increases their job performance and motivation. The “big Five” basic, general dimensions that describe personality CANOE 1. Conscientiousness- responsible and achievement oriented 2. Agreeableness- friendly & approachable 3. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability- emotional control 4. Openness to experience- thinks flexibly; receptive to new ideas 5. Extraversion- outgoing vs. shy What behaviors in the workplace have the “big 5” been shown to be linked to? - Job performance - Motivation - Absenteeism - Job Satisfaction - Career Success Job satisfaction- is not strongly related to job performance. Still related because we care that its related to turnover and absenteeism. We care more about organization commitment and fairness. Organizational Commitment 1. Affective commitment: Because you ―want to‖ (based on identification and involvement with an organization) **is when an individual is somehow attached to the organization and does not want it to fail. If someone is associated with the company or has a very big involvement, they will always be committed to it and will not let it fail. 2. Normative commitment: Because you ―should‖(feelings of obligation) **is when a person feels obligated to stay with the company. If there is an important person who holds a major part of the company together, they will feel compelled to stay or else they may feel they will let the company fail. 3. Continuance commitment: because you ―have to‖ based on cost incurred with leaving the organization **is when someone knows that they need to stay at the company because they are making good money and don‘t want too lose that, they know it is in their best interest to stay. Justice/ Fairness- **make sure employees enjoy their jobs** 1. Procedural Fairness: occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable. 2. Interactional Fairness: occurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication about an outcome 3. Distributive Fairness: distribution of work rewards and resources Communication -many miscommunications are simple differences in perceptions Intro to HR 1. Do you think HRM is an important function within an organization? Why or why not? HRM is an important function within an organization because it manages the most essential part of an organization, the workers. To have a successful organization you must have successful, happy and motivated employees to keep your organization moving forward and that can only be achieved with good human resource management. 2. What is strategic HRM? Why is it important to link HRM with the strategy of the organization? Strategic human resource management can be defined as the linking of human resources with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational culture that foster innovation, flexibility and competitive advantage. In an organization SHRM means accepting and involving the HR function as a strategic partner in the formulation and implementation of the company's strategies through HR activities such as recruiting, selecting, training and rewarding personnel. Strategic human resource management focuses on human resource programs with long-term objectives. Instead of focusing on internal human resource issues, the focus is on addressing and solving problems that effect people management programs in the long run and often globally. Therefore the primary goal of strategic human resources is to increase employee productivity by focusing on business obstacles that occur outside of human resources. The primary actions of a strategic human resource manager are to identify key HR areas where strategies can be implemented in the long run to improve the overall employee motivation and productivity. Communication between HR and top management of the company is vital as without active participation no cooperation is possible Legal 1. Assume you are a supervios in your organization. How would the legislation that pertains to HRM affect how you do your job? It would affect how I do my job based on How I hire, who I hire, how I pay people and who I give bonuses to. 2. Why is it important for an organization to ensure their HRM practices have a high level of legal compliance? It is important for an organization to have a high level of legal compliance a. Because from a legal stand point you don’t want to get charged with a compliance b. To increase procedural fairness 3. What is the difference between the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Ontario Human Right Code? CHRA- The Canadian Human Rights Act is a statute passed by the Parliament of Canada in 1977 with the express goal of extending the law to ensure equal opportunity to individuals who may be victims of discriminatory practices based on a set of prohibited grounds such as sex, disability, or religion. It applies throughout Canada, but only to federally regulated activities; each province and territory has its own anti-discrimination law that applies to activities that are not federally regulated OHRC - The Ontario Human Rights Code is a provincial law in the province of Ontario, Canada that gives all people equal rights and opportunities without discrimination in specific areas such as , housing and services. The Code's goal is to prevent discrimination and harassment because of race,colour, gender identity, sex, sexual orientation, disability, creed, age and other grounds. 4. If you are en employee who works for Air Canada, under which human rights act would you be covered? Air Canada- federal/ CHRA 5. Under which act would you be covered if you worked for a Tim Hortons in Hamilton, ON? Tim hortons- provincial/ OHRC 6. Same as question 3 7. What is the purpose of Human Rights Legislation? -to protect people that are usually disadvantaged in the workplace or discriminated against. 8. What is the difference between intentional (direct) discrimination and systemic discrimination? Direct discrimination takes place when an employer adopts a rule which on its face discriminates against people based on one of the many factors listed in human rights codes. A rule like "no Catholics, women or blacks can be employed here" would be an obvious case of direct discrimination. Systemic discrimination takes place where established procedures of recruitment, hiring and promotion, although neutral on their face, create unnecessary hurdles for some members of society to obtain employment or advancement based on their racial or religious background, among other factors. For example, for genuine business reasons, an employer adopts a rule which seems neutral but can have an unfair impact on a particular group of people. For instance, a rule that all employees must work Saturday might seem fair but will adversely effect employees who, for religious reasons, celebrate their Sabbath on Saturday. The law does not say that such a rule must be struck down. It does say that in each situation the employer must do their best to accommodate the needs of the particular employee. 9. What is a bonafide occupational requirement? A bona fide occupational requirement (or BFOR, for short) is a standard or rule that is integral to carrying out the functions of a specific position. For a standard to be considered a BFOR, an employer has to establish that any accommodation or changes to the standard would create an undue hardship. For example, an airline pilot must have very good eyesight. This standard is integral to carrying out the duties of a pilot’s job. When a standard is a BFOR, an employer is not expected to change it to accommodate an employee. However, to be as inclusive as possible, an employer should still explore whether some form of accommodation is possible anyhow. 10. What is “duty to accommodate”? For example, for genuine business reasons, an employer adopts a rule which seems neutral but can have an unfair impact on a particular group of people. For instance, a rule that all employees must work Saturday might seem fair but will adversely effect employees who, for religious reasons, celebrate their Sabbath on Saturday. The law does not say that such a rule must be struck down. It does say that in each situation the employer must do their best to accommodate the needs of the particular employee. 11. What are employment standards? Do they vary by province or are they federally legislated? A requirement or prohibition under the ESA (Employment Standards Act) that applies to an employer for the benefit of an employee. Laws governing conditions such as general holidays, annual vacation, hours of work, minimum wages, layoff procedures and severance pay. Employment standards are set by provincial and territorial governments. Section 2: Culture: what is culture? -clearly defined jobsoccurs in a culture with: -communicating and listening -credibility -trust developed from honestly and sincerity Culture vs. Structure - difference between organizational culture and organizational structure? -organizations range in structure from Mechanistic and Organic Organic Organization - De-centralization of decision making: takes employees ideas into consideration - Low formalization or work procedures: don‘t have a lot of rules and regulations to follow, there are no certain rules - span of control: there are few levels on administration, there isnt one person who controls everyone, everyone put ideas in - organization considers needs on employees Mechanistic Organization - narrow division of labour: Jobs narrowly defined - High Centralization of decision-making (only people high up in the company get -High formalization of work procedures(rules regulations and standardization) - Span of control (there are many levels of administration) What influences whether organizations will tend towards organic or mechanistic structure- how structure is influences by: -organizational goals -strategy -size -technology -environment Structure and Strategy- What kind of structure would be necessary for these types of strategies: -Innovation: always coming up with new ideas and products -Cost leader: lowest cost out of competitors -Quality leader: the best quality for your money and every every knows its a good name brand -Strategy of company: to be innovative, be a low cost producer, to produce high quality products. aStrumechanistic organization. (very formal, a lot of rules) levels then its likely to be -->It could also be an organic organization (very flat, and few levels, freedom to make decisions) (how would structure affect many practices that occur in the workplace and how were going to hire somebody, how were going to evaluate their performance, how decision making is going to take place) -Culture of company: shared norms, values and beliefs * this also affects all the practices that will take place* - How Culture strategy and structure are different and how each of them affect the decision making in an organization. Disney world -strategy: Disneys strategy would be to always be coming up with new things one of the most known amusment parks in the world and this is one of their main strategies. -structure: Disney has a very mechanistic organization since it is so large. But at the same time it is also an organic organization since there is a lot of team work. -culture: Disney welcomes all cultures and makes sure all their empkoyees are exposed to the different types of culture. They make everyone feel welcome and make it a diverse community. -How does their strategy influence their structure? -How does their strategy influence their culture? -How are their culture and structure related? -Justify what type of structure Disney has and how it would have ben determined CULTURE, STRUCTURE AND DECISION-MAKING 1. How would a). A weak culture. b. Strong culture c). A good culture d). A bad culture impacts HR within an organization? weak culture: when no one really knows what the culture is/ don’t agree on it (through lack of focus, lack of motivation, lack of unity, little autonomy) a)weak culture: when no one really knows what the culture is/ don’t agree on it (through lack of focus, lack of motivation, lack of unity, little autonomy) ex. walmart b)strong culture: when everyone knows what the culture is/ agree on it ex. Disney c)good: where the culture has a positive effect on the employees (through treated without discrimination, concrete direction, etc) ex. hospitals d) bad: where the culture has a negative effect on the employee (through discrimination, stress, misconduct, etc.)ex. Gestapo, the Secret State Police, who were often overworked and understaffed, causing immense stress, as well as partook in immorally wrong activities 2. Find example of both organic and mechanistic organization and how HRM practices would differ within each organization. Organic: Google -instead of having a common goal, individuals work on goals with help of managers and teammates -employees are asked to evaluate their jobs and propose ways to improve, as well as openly discuss their goals and progress -decnetralized as everyone has own goal -division of labour is high as everyone has own goals and approach them differently -little hierarchy Mechanistic: University -hierarachy: all employees have strict rules and report to managers and supervisors who in turn report to their managers -specific jobs and duties, little division of labour -decision making is centralized by the dean/ headmaster 3. How would decision making differ within an organic and a mechanistic organization. Organic is centralization: refers to the degree to which decision-making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. The concept includes only formal authority; that is, the rights inherent in one’s position. Typically, it’s said that if top management makes the organization’s key decisions with little or no input from lower-level employees, then the organization is centralized. Mechanic is decentralization: in contrast, the more that lower-level employees provide input or are actually given the discretion to make decisions, the more decentralization there is. (P133) 4. What are the decision making biases and under which condition are they likely to occur? What can you do as a manager to minimize the likelihood the biases will occur? Overconfidence bias: is mostly likely to surface when organizational member are considering issues or problems that are outside their area of expertise Anchoring bias: occurs because our mind appears to give a disproportionate amount of emphasis to the first information in receives. Confirmation bias influences where we go to collect evidence because we tend to seek out source most likely to tell us what we want to her. Availability bias: evoke emotion that are particularly vivid, or that have occurred more recently tend to be more available in our memory. STRESS 1. What are three possible causes of the stress at work? Provide 3 ways to cope with the stress. 4 things your organization could do to help you? 3 stress factors: task demands, interpersonal demands and personal factors 3 ways: time management, physical activities and building social support. Improve processes for choosing employees, placement employees in appropriate jobs, realistic goal setting, and designing jobs with employees’ needs and skills in minds. Creating jobs that give employees with more responsibility, more meaningful work more autonomy and increased feedback can reduce stress. Increasing formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty by lessening role ambiguity and role conflict. 2.Whether the stress you face as a student is mostly due to individual, job and organization, how could you and your school do to reduce the stress? 3. Explain fit! Why it is important when you select employees? What is fit? It is the situation, which is primarily responsible for individual behaviors. Or the personal characteristics are primarily responsible for behavior. Employee success is largely affected by two things: personal factors and environmental factors. Personal factors include the appropriate skills to perform a job combined with the motivation to utilize those skill-sets effectively. Environmental factors include manager fit and cultural fit. Employees are often hired on skill but fired or leave based on fit. Section 3 RECRUITMENT: internal recruitment: getting people from within the organization to work for the company. Advantages- person is familiar with the organization and culture -they have proven their ability -lower recruitment costs -proven their ability -improves workplace morale and motivation Disadvantages- internal rivalry -No “ new blood” - Poor morale of people who were not selected in the company External Recruitment- getting people from outside of the organization. Advantages: can acquire skills that is not available within the organization - newer ideas may emerge Disadvantages- newcomers may not fit -newcomers need to learn about the organization and its culture -more expensive -lower morale of everyone else who doesn't see a career growth within the firm **SELECTION: selection system could depend on many things but Selection system must be 1. Valid: it needs to be based on a job analysis, needs to be content valid or/ and have criterion related validity. ( know what each means) 2. Reliable: the selection system needs to be applied consistently to everyone who is getting interviewed (ask same questions and give same tests to everyone, needs to consistent) 3. Practical: cannot be too costs, takes too much time or doesn't have a lot to do with the job people wont want to implement it. 4. Free From Bias: refer back to perception and attribution errors and make sure all these errors wont occur (halo effect, similar to me effect). And reduce likelihood attribution errors will occur ( fundamental error and selection systems should have: -content validity: does the system adequately represent the behavior/ knowledge of the position. -criterion related validity: does the system adequately indicate the relationship between the predictor (ex test) and the criterion (ex. performance on job) (are you sure the system is testing you on the information you will be getting on the job or is there no relevance) -job analysis: know exactly what the job entails, better chance of finding a good match, legally defensible- questions will be job related what selection system would you recommend: touch on culture, structure and strategy. I would want a system thats based on a job analysis, needs to be content valid... **HOW DOES CULTURE, STRUCTURE AND DECISION MAKING AFFECT SELECTION SYSTEM?- it depends on individual differences, industry your in, what competitor are doing The selection system is affected by many different things and it depends on the culture, structure and strategy of the organization. It depends on the strategy because it depends on what your competitors are doing and what type of person you need for the job. Does the company need someone who is has very creative ideas to come up with new innovations or does the company need someone who has already been in the industry and know what is going on. For structure do you need someone who can be in a mechanistic or organic structure. If you have a mechanistic organization you need someone who is... If its an organic organization you need someone who is...( what type of industry are you in) Structure will also affect the type of decision making that will take place because in a mechanistic only a few people make decisions and in an organic all of the employees have an input. How you are you going to evaluate their performance in an organic? You will see how they work as a team since in it mostly team based and see how they get along with other. In a mechanistic, you will see how they follow rules and if they are able to work in that kind of organization. How culture affects the decision making and if someone will be able to fit into the organization. Does their organization follow their beliefs will they be able to work there or will it go against what they believe? And will they be able to get along with everyone else in the company? LEGALLY DEFENSIBLE SELECTION SYSTEM: you want a system that is legally defensible but that your also choosing the right employee -must provide equal employment opportunities to all individuals without regard to race, age, gender, national origin, marital status, family status, sex, handicap etc. ( under the Ontario Human Rights Code) - under the Ontario Human Rights Code - don’t commit perceptual or attributional errors (wanna make sure you not committing fundamental attribution error or similar to the error- more likely to attribute behaviors to internal causes. (this is while selecting employees) - if your system is practical, reliable, free from bias and valid it is legally defensible Aside from being legally defensible: you want the selection system to be FAIR (this is called procedural justice) (helps when choosing the right employee) -also care about choosing right employee chose a system and procedure is fair, you should be able to explain how procedural fairness, interactional fairness and distributive fairness can be outcomes of the right selection system. (how does the selection system have a high level of each fairness) Steps in the selection process -Reception of Applicants -Review of Applications -Administration of Employment Tests -Psychological, Knowledge, Performance, Integrity, Attitude, Medical -Verification of References -Employment Interviews -Realistic Job Previews -Medical Evaluations -Hiring Decision Then decide which selection tool to use: -Application Blanks -Bio-data -Work Samples -Interviews -Assessment Centers -Pen & Paper Tests -RJPs (Realistic Job Previews) INTERVIEW) interviews (ALWAYS RECOMMEND STRUCTURED -3 distinguishing feature: -Job-related questions -Predetermined scoring system / rating scale- you don‘t just make up how good you believe an employee is on the spot, there is a rating scale you have to determine how good the employee did in each section -Standardized - same approach for all applicants -2 types: situational and behavioural (WOULD YOU CHOSE A SITUATIONAL OR BEHAVIORAL INTERVIEW IN THE SITUATION AND WHY) The behavioral Interview: ( STRUCTURED INTERVIEW) * person could lie in this interview to make themselves look better* -Based on job analysis -Candidate is asked to describe a specific situation s/he has been involved in that relates to a specific skill or competency -―Tell me about a time when you had to work on a team with someone you didn‘t get along with.‖ -May involve more than 1 interviewer (e.g., panel) -Rationale for behavioural interview -―past behaviour is the best predictor of future behaviour‖ -Good reliability and validity The Situational Interview (STRUCTURED INTERVIEW) *get to know how a person can think on the spot and see what kinds of things they believe is right in the situation* * see how the employee could potentially act while they are acctually on the job* -Questions are based on job analysisoperly or not* -Presents candidate with a dilemma – ―What would you do…? -Candidate must answer by saying how s/he would respond to the dilemma -Rationale for situational interview -―intention predicts future behaviour‖ -Explicit scoring system -1 = least effective; 5 = most effective -Good reliability and validity -Found to predict both task performance and citizenship performance The preferred Selection Systems: -Application blank -Bio-data -Structured Interview (Situational) based on a job analysis -Assessment Centers (if sufficient resources) -RJP (to ensure fit) UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF A REALISTIC JOB PREVIEW: them get a realistic preview of what the job would look liketo hire then and let - it reduces unmet expectations (increases likelihood people are going to stay with the organization) - increases effective commitment - increases procedural justice - increases interactional justice * very important to do this if it makes sense and is practical for the job you are hiring for* Questions: Job Analysis 1. Assume you have been asked to write a job analysis for a Police Constable a) Explain why would want a JA for this postion. I would want a JA for this postion so I know what knowledge, skills, and abilities are required for that job. - measuring job performance on what is required of that position - what questions to ask in the interview - what traits are required etc. b) How would you go about preparing a JA for this position? Explain the sources and the intruments you would use to collect your data and why you chose them. I would go about preparing a JA for this position by talking to supervisors, other employees, fellow police constables, looking at the job requirements and I would use instruments such as: Application Blanks -Bio-data -Work Samples -Interviews -Assessment Centers -Pen & Paper Tests -RJPs (Realistic Job Previews) c) How would you determing the performance standard for this postion? - conduct a job analysis to figure out what behaviours they exhibit and then turn that as a means to measure performance Recruitment and Selection 1. Explain Five perceptual errors and explain how they could occur in selection interviews. -Primacy: reliance on early, first impressions -Recency: most recent information dominated perceptions -Implicit Personality Theories: Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together. ex. you may believe that hard working people are also honest. -Halo: one trait forms a general impression -Projection/similar to me: believing other people are similar to you and therefore liking them better -Stereotyping: tendency to generalize about people in a social category and ignore variations among them 2. What should an organization do to ensure they are selecting the best employee (in terms of fit between the person and the job and the person and the organization). - Realistic job preview which will reduce unmet expectation and increase the likelihood of the fit between the person and the job and person and organization - Job analysis- selection system is valid, structured, reliable and based on the job analysis - Is it more important for person to fit with the job than with the culture of the organization - Selection system is free from bias - Screening people out with multiple interviews 3. Search for an example online or use your current part time postion. What is effective or ineffective about the selection system? - selection system for Mississauga Recreation and Parks – Camp Leader job  begins with an application blank, where people who fulfill minimum criteria can move on  3 parts tstthe interview: o 1 part is a structured behaviour, including both behavioural and situational questions o 2 part is a pen-and-paper test, testing our creativity rd o 3 part is like an assessment center, where you are thrown in a group and asked to work together to do something. Observers watch your interaction and such  They then score you on the 3 different areas and hire you depending on your cumulative score -is effective as it is practical and evaluators can see how the candidates act “on the job” and is valid, free from bias and practical -tests them on all aspects pertaining to job/ is very in-depth -it is ineffective because it doesn’t allow the employer to make sure there is a good enough fit between the person and the job because camp leaders need to be personable and outgoing people whereas a candidate could have all the right qualifications yet not be an outgoing person. 4. What recommendations would you make to your organization with regards to recruiting new employees? recommendations - importance of fit in the right types of venues/situations - putting out ads based on time, resources and money - recruiting strategy fits with organizational culture o hiring internally vs externally depends on situation, job, 5. What is the strategic importance of the selection function for an organization? Strategic importance of the selection function - selecting people in a way that is aligned with the organizations strategy or goals’ - -depends on what the org is like, as selection should benefit the org. - -e.g. quick turnover can mean that you don’t want to spend too much time and money on training 6. Contrast two jobs within an organization. Outline the recruitment and selection process you would use for each position (including what tools you would use) and explain why they would differ for the two positions. -Clinical receptionist and physiotherapist Receptionist Physiotherapist Recruitment -external recruitment, -internal recruitment if you as most people can know a good practitioner, accomplish clerical external if not tasks Need specific people with Most people can do skill, so recruit using: clerical jobs easily, so -referrals recruit using: -professional associations -university/ colleges (Physiotherapists -Walk-ins, write-ins Association) -referrals -professional search firm -internet -employment agency Have them fill out Have them fill out application blank application blank Selection -Create a JA Create a JA -screen applicants -screen applicants -Verify references -give employment tests -Interview them (BI) esp. testing in knowledge, -have them meet skill, personality and people in the office, integrity see how they behave -Verify references -successfully screened applicants are asked into an interview and go through a SI and BI -may also be asked to practically show their skill -have them meet people in the office, see how they behave - put more time, money and effort into a physiotherapist because they are more specialized and difficult to find (a good one) -a receptionist requires less technical skill and just need to be detail-oriented and sociable - janitor vs teacher… - job analysis, differentiate between election and recruitment (how you recruit people to apply) Section 4 Orientation, Training & Development 1. If you were developing a training program, how would the learning principles play a role in the design of the program? -5 principles that depend if you’ll learn from the course:  Repetition (transfer of training): Repeat  Participation: Active involvement  Relevance: If you think material is relevant  Transference: The setting you learn the material in (e.g. simulation)  Feedback: Need feedback to be motivated to learn -as manager, we need to include these for the employee to want to learn the material 2. Analyze the orientation in a part-time job you have or in an organization -Volunteer placement at hospital ER room -of the learning principles, all were used -training technique was on-the-job, shadowing of former volunteer 3. Does a training program have to be legally defensible? -Yes, by eliminating bias (e.g. accessibility, consistent structured procedures to show who trains where 4. How would you measure the effectiveness of a training program? -Pre-test/ post-test design: measure the employee’s knowledge before training and after 5. Given theories you learned from class, what type of training program would you offer your employees? (What would it depend on/ how would you justify it? -see chart of strengths/ weaknesses and methods in Ppt 4 -it depends on what job, the culture, structure and strategy of the organization as well. 6. Duplicate of q5 7. What is diff between socialization and orientation? Why is orientation impt for employees? -socialization: long-term, informal process to learn about the culture, norms, etc. of the org -orientation: short-term, formal process where employee learns how to do the tasks 8. Do you believe that, if employees are properly selected, do they need an orientation? Why or why not? -yes, although if they have strong fit, may not need as LONG of an orientation as they’ll catch on quickly 9. What are employee/ employer benefits from an orientation? -Employee: Reduces unmet expectations (they’ll know what to expect), inc motivation, less anxiety -Employer: makes sure everyone hears same things, 10. Choose 2 contrasting jobs in an org. How are the training methods different? -accountant vs. marketing team leader Accountants learn best from… Marketing learns best from… Case Study Case Study lecture Simulation Video/ Lecture -chart of strengths/ weaknesses -learning principles -measurement Specialization -process of employees adapting to organization -Long-term process, often informal Orientation -program that informs new employees about their jobs and company -short-term, often formal Socialization Process by which an employee begins to adapt to the values, norms and beliefs of the organization and its members -involves learning the organization‘s climate and ―learning to fit in‖ Climate - ‗member‘ shared perceptions of the contingencies between behaviours that occur in the work environment and their consequences‖ - Learning what behaviours are expected, acceptable, unacceptable Why is socialization important? - sets the tone of employment relationship - reduces anxiety for new employees *will i fit in? will I enjoy the job/coworkers/etc? -Effects employees performance *Clarified expectations; how things are done; etc. -Effects other individuals and organizational outcomes *Commitment, turnover, productivity, etc. Stages of Socialization 1. Anticipatory -Employees begin with certain expectations about organization and job *Based on company reputation, word of mouth experiences during recruitment and selection etc. - May be unrealistic- if unmet, results in dissatisfaction, turnover, etc - tool that would be helpful for this stage is *Realistic Job Preview (RJP)-info about the job demands and working conditions- both positive and negative aspects 2. Encounter - Employee has started new job - Inconsistencies between expectations and reality emerge - Needs info re: policies, procedures, etc. *Ex, via Orientation programs * Org issues * Employee benefit * introductions * Job duties 3. Change (settling in) -Inconsistencies start to get worked out -Employee begins to identify with organization -Transition from being an “outsider” to feeling like an “insider” -Often involves taking on new attitudes, values, and behaviours to align with organization ’s -Misalignment = dissatisfaction and turnover Purposes of Orientation Programs -Reduces employee turnover -Reduces errors and saves time -Develops clear job and org’n expectations Measuring the effectiveness of orientation programs -Reactions from new employees -Effects of socialization on job attitudes -Degree to which the program is economical *Development of a Training Program* Step 1: Needs Assessment be met through training & developments and future challenges that can -Organizational analysis *Culture, values, mission, goals, strategy -Job / task analysis *KSA requirements -Person analysis *Gaps between employee KSAs and KSAs required by jobs E.g., performance (types of personalities) Step 2: Develop Training Objectives Must include: -The desired behaviour -The conditions under which it is to occur -Performance criteria -Ex. ―By the end of this week, you will be able to list and define the 5 main steps involved in the development of a training program, without referring to your notes‖ Step 3: Develop Program Content and Learning Principles Issues to Consider -Needs assessment -Training objectives -Audience -Class size -Time availability -Cost -Training format -Learning principles Learning Principles* Learning principles are the guidelines to which most people learn effectively Factors that contribute to effective learning are: -Participation: Participants are actively involved -Repetition:Repeated review of material -Relevance: Material is meaningful -Transference: Application of training to actual job situation (ex. flight simulation) -Feedback: Information given to learners, re: their progress Bandura’s Social Learning Theory **Higher level of learning** High self-efficacy -Belief one can achieve a behaviour, can they do the training and transfer what they learned to the job High outcome expectancy -Belief that behaviour will lead to an outcome of value, when they do the training is there going to be some reward for them? (making their job easier, promotion..) Step 4: Deliver Training Numerous methods to chose from: -On the job-techniques *eg. job rotation, apprenticeships, etc. -Off-the-job techniques *Lectures *Role playing *Case studies *Simulations *Computer-based training *Virtual reality (replicate the work environment) Individual Influences on Transfer of Training -Set proximal goals -Set specific goals -Engage in self-talk Step 5: Evaluation Training Effectiveness 5 criteria- 1. Reaction: Are participants satisfied with training? 2. Learning: How much has been learned? 3. Attitude Change: Did training result in attitude change? 4. Behaviour Change: Did the learning transfer to the job? 5. Results criteria: Was the training worth the cost to the company Evaluating Training -If possible, use the evaluation method that will allow you to draw conclusions about the programs effectiveness -Reaction measures *important, but don't refer to effectiveness -Measure behaviour post-training *Cant determine whether change occurred Pre-test Post-test Design -Measure → Training → Measure -Allows you to see if change has occurred -E.g., # of items produced before training = 10/minute # produced after training = 16/minute -But, what if other employees who did not receive training average 15 items/minute? *Is training effective? -Should also use a control group *Employees who did not receive training Training vs. Development -Training vs. Development- *Both refer to the learning of job-related behaviour -Training *focuses on job performance *Emphasis is on acquisition of specific KSAs needed for the present job -Development *Focuses on personal growth, longer-term development *Emphasis is on acquiring KSAs needed for future job or organizational need Section 5 1. What is the best way to motivate your employees? The best way to motivate you employees depends on a lot of different things such as the stage of life they are in, stage of career, their age, what they have accomplished etc… However, one can start motivating their employees with continuous and timely feedback on performance. Employees can also be motivated through incentive programs, compensation, feedback, intrinsic/extrinsic (it depends on individual differences, culture, structure and strategy of the organization as well. 2. How would you use self-efficacy to improve the performance of your employees? Self efficacy is the belief that you can actually do something and is usually influenced by how well you do, how well others do, verbal persuasion and feedback, social influence and one’s own emotional state. As a manager, you can use self efficacy by providing continuous feedback to improve their self efficacy which will improve job performance as it is the most important factor of motivation next to procedural fairness. Providing a valuable incentive also helps as the person’s self efficacy will be high due to the expectancy theory and therefore improving performance as they will be more motivated to do well. 3. Explain why knowing the personalities of the employees are important with regards to motivation. Knowing the personalities of your employees is important with regards to motivation because different people, depending on their personalities, will be motivated by different things, It also helps to understand how intrinsic motivation affects them. 4. Using operant learning theory, explain why feedback is so important. Using the operant learning theory, you can condition employees to learn what they should and should not do to increase job performance. Providing reinforcements or feedback to employees motivates them as continuous reinforcements increase performance. Operant learning theory will also help the employee understand what behaviours are preferred on the job and which ones are not due to the positive and negative reinforcements. 5. What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment? Negative reinforcement  Is the strengthening of a behaviour by avoiding, stopping, removing an aversive stimulus Punishment  Is the use of an aversive stimulus (positive punishment) or removal of a desirable stimuli (negative punishment) In general, reinforcement is the strengthening of behaviour and punishment is the weakening of behaviour. 6. If you had an employee exhibit unwanted behaviour, how would you decide whether to use negative reinforcement, extinction or punishment?  Extinction is the gradual weakening of response it depends on how fast you need the unwanted behaviour to be gone as well as on the employee’s personality and how they react to different things. 7. What does each of the following theories say managers should do to motivate their employees? a) equity theory  the comparison between you and another relative employee, meaning, that we’ll be motivated if our input/output is equal to that of other employees. Since employees compare themselves, managers need to make sure that the process is fair and that they understand why they got that certain appraisal. If there is an under-reward, meaning that employees feel that they are putting in more effort and work and not getting enough of a reward for it or over-reward, where employees are paid/rewarded much higher than the effort/work they put in then they are not being motivated. Managers should understand their employees and understand that they are always comparing themselves to each other and therefore should have a fair procedure of conducting appraisals at all times so that the appraisal is valid and free from bias. b) Expectance theory  those who have a high le
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