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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 3010
Rhonda Gordon

Chapter 4: Job Analysis Structures Based on Jobs, People, or Both -job based pay structures look at tasks the people are doing and expected outcomes -skill-based and competency-based pay structures look at the person --purpose of each phase of the process is same for both job-based and person-based pay structure: 1. collect and summarize information that identifies similarities and differences 2. determine what is to be valued 3. quantify the relative value 4. translate relative value into an internal pay structure Job-Based Approach: Most Common Job analysis – the systematic process of collecting information about the nature of specific jobs -content of the job is identified via job analysis, this content serves as input for describing an valuing work -involves identification and description of what is happening on the job -identifies: -required tasks -knowledge and skills -working conditions -major decisions when designing job analysis: 1. why are we collecting job information 2. What information do we need 3. how should we collect it 4. who should be involved 5. how useful are the results Job Analysis- Job Description- systematic summaryreports Job Evaluation - Job Structure - an process of that identify, comparisonof ordering of jobs collecting define, and jobs within an based on their informaiton about describe the job as organizaiton content or relative the nature of it is actually value specific jobs performed Why Perform Job Analysis? PURPOSE: job analysis/job descriptions- collect, summarize work information Job evaluation- determine what to value Assess value – factor degrees and weighting Translate into structure – job based structure -type of job analyses data needed varies according to function -in performance evaluations, job analysis are used to help assess performance (required behaviors and results outlined) -provides work related rationale for pay differences -helps managers defend their decisions when they are challenged -in compensation, job analysis has two critical uses: 1. Establishes similarities and differences in the content of jobs and 2. Helps establish internally fair and aligned job structure -if jobs have equal content then likely the pay established for them will be equal -if job content differs, then those differences and market rates paid by competitors are part of the rational for paying jobs differently Job Analysis Procedures Job family- grouping of related jobs with broadly similar content (marketing, engineering, office support) Job- group of tasks performed by one person that make up the total work assignment of that person (customer service representative) Task- smallest unit of analysis, specific statement of what a person does (answers the phone) -job analysis usually collect information about specific tasks or behaviors -group of tasks performed by one person makes up a position -identical positions make a job Conventional Job Analyses: Step 1. Develop preliminary job information – review existing documents to develop initial ‘big-picture’ familiarity with the job (main mission, major duties/functions, workflow patterns); prepare preliminary list of duties which will serve as framework for conducting interview; make note of major items that are unclear or ambiguous of that need to be clarified during the data-gathering process Step 2. Conduct initial tour of work site – initial tour is designed to familiarize the job analyst with layout, the tools and equipment that are used, the general conditions of the workplace and the mechanics associated with the end-to-end performance of major duties; initial tour is particularly helpful for those jobs where a first-hand view of a complicated or unfamiliar piece of equipment may save the interviewee the thousand words required to describe the unfamiliar or technical; for continuity it is recommended that the first level supervisor-interviewee be designed as the guide for the job-site observations Step 3. Conduct interviews – it is recommended that the first interview be conducted with the first level supervisor who is considered to be in a better position than the job holders to provide an overview of the job and how the major duties fit together; for scheduling purposes its recommended that no more then two interviews be conducted per day, each interview lasting no more than three hours Notes on selection of interviewees –the interviewees are considered subject matter experts by virtue of the fact that they perform the job (in the case of job incumbents) or are responsible for getting the job done (in the case of first-level supervisors); the job incumbent to be interviewed should represent the typical employee who is knowledgeable about the job (not the trainee who is just learning the ropes or the outstanding member of the work unit); whenever feasible the interviewees should be selected with a view towards obtaining an appropriate diversity mix Step 4. Conduct second tour of work site – the second tour of the work site is designed to clarify, confirm, and otherwise refine the information developed in the interviews; as in initial tour it is recommended that the same first-level supervisor-interviewee conduct the second walk-through Consolidate job information Step 5. the consolidation phase of the job study involves piecing together into coherent and comprehensive job description the data obtained from several sources (supervisor, job holders, onsite tours, and written materials about the job); past experience indicates that one minute of consolidation is required for every minute of interviewing. For planning purposes, at least five hours should be set aside for consolidation phases; a subject matter expert should be accessible as a resource person to the job analyst during the consolidation phases. The supervisor-interviewee fills this role; check initial preliminary list of duties and questions-all must be answered or confirmed Step 6. Verify job description – verification phase involves bringing all the interviewees together for the purpose of determining if the consolidated job description is accurate and complete; the verification process is conducted in a group setting. Typed or legibly written copies of the job description (narrative description of the work setting and list of task statements) are distributed the first-level supervisor and the job incumbent interviewees; line by line the job analyst goes through entire job description and makes notes of any omissions, ambiguities, or needed clarifications What Information Should Be Collected -typical analysis starts with review of information already collected in order to develop framework for further analysis (job titles, major duties, task dimensions, and workflow information may already exists) -good job analysis collects sufficient information to adequately identify, define and describe a job Job Data: Identification -information that identifies job: job titles (may not always be straightforward), departments, number of people who hold job -title, department in which job is located -number of people who hold job Job Data: Content -heart of job analysis -tasks and activities, effort (physical, mental, emotional), constraints on actions, performance criteria, critical incidents, conflicting demands, working conditions, roles (negotiator, monitor, leader), responsibility Employee Data -employee characteristics, internal relationships and external relationships -kinds of behaviors that will result in the outcomes -includes employee characteristics (professional/technical knowledge, manual skills, verbal skills, written skills, quantitative skills, mechanical skills, conceptual skills, managerial skills, leadership skills, interpersonal skills), internal relationships (boss and other superiors, peers, subordinates), exter
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