Chapter 6: Internal Recruitment
- Internal recruitment process: plan to identify and attract applicants from among current
- The first step is recruitment planning, which address both organizational and
- The second step is strategy development. Where, when and how to look for qualified
- The third step in process is searching for internal candidates. Communication message
and medium for notification of the job vacancy.
- The fourth step is developing a system to make the transition to selection for job
applicants. Requires a well-developed job posting system and providing applicants with
an understanding of the selection process and how to best prepare for it.
- Finally for some organizations it is necessary to consider the barriers that place limits on
the opportunities of women and other designated groups.
- Just as external labour market can be divided into segments or strata of workers believed
to be desirable job applicants, so, too, can the internal labour market of an organization.
- At a more formal level organizations must create a structured set of jobs for their
employees and paths of mobility for them to follow to advance their careers by creating
internal market. Internal labour has two components:
Possible employee movements within the internal labour market structure.
Determined by many factors including workforce, organization, labour
union and labour market structure.
Traditional mobility paths:
- Emphasis is on upward mobility
- often labelled promotion ladders
- upward promotions are seen by employees as prizes.
Innovative Mobility Paths:
- Movement in the organization may be in any direction
- Ensures continuous learning by employees
- Most organizations have shifted to this path for two reasons: there is
the need to be flexible given global and technological changes and
slower organizational growth has made it necessary to find alternative
ways to utilize employees’ talents.
- Lateral track system may be no upward mobility.
- Lattice mobility path has upward, lateral and even downward
- The downside to innovative paths is that they are difficult to
administer. On positive side talented candidates who may not have
been identified because the system is flexible enough to do so.
Special steps need to be need to be taken to ensure that work remains
meaningful. Examples of steps include: Alternative reward systems (rather than basing pay increases on promotions, they can be based on knowledge
and skill acquisition and contribution to the organization as a team member
and individual), Team building (responsible for all aspects of work involved
in providing a service or product, including self-management.), Counselling (
workshops, self-directed workbooks and individual advising.) and
Alternative Employment (arrangements can be made for employee leaves of
absence, sabbaticals and consulting assignments to ensure that workers
remain challenged and acquire new knowledge and knowledge.)
Documents outlining the rules and eligibility criteria concerning employee
movement between jobs in an organization
Development: A well defined mobility path policy statement is needed
for mobility paths.
Eligibility: Listing of the criteria by which the organization will
decide who is eligible to be considered for an open vacancy in a
mobility path. Criteria is normally based on the amt of seniority, level
of experience, KSAOs or job duties required for the job.
- Requisition or authorization to fill a position by higher-level management is essential to
the internal recruitment process.
- Internal and external recruitment efforts need to be coordinated and synchronized via the
- Internal and external professionals must work together with the line manager to
coordinate efforts before the search for candidates begins.
- Two steps should be taken to coordinate: First internal staffing positions should be
designed to ensure that internal candidates are considered in the recruitment process.
Second policies need to be created that specify the number and types of candidates sought
internally and the number and type of candidates sought externally.
- The cost per new hire may differ between external and internal recruitment .
- Sometimes internal recruitment can be more costly
- A formal document detailing the procedures for attracting applicants to a vacant job.
- Included in the plan are details such as the time, money and staff activities required to fill
the job and steps taken to fill the vacancy.
Lead time concerns:
- Major difference between internal and external recruitment is the internal recruitment not
only fills vacancies but creates them.
Time sequence concerns:
- internal and external recruitment activities should be coordinated properly.
- Proper coordination is especially true with timing and sequence of events that must be
laid out for recruitment and placement personnel. Strategy Development
Closed, Open and Targeted Recruitment
Closed internal recruitment system:
- Internal recruitment process in which the job vacancy is not posted and viable internal
candidates are identified by HR department and provided to line managers for assessment
- Closed system is efficient and time and cost is minimal
- Inaccurate or out of date files are kept, qualified candidates may be overlooked
- Company policies or agreements (eg. Unions) may restrict using a closed system.
Open internal recruitment system:
- A strategy to locate viable internal job applicants where employees are aware of job
vacancies usually through a job posting and bidding system.
- Gives employees a chance to measure their qualifications against those requied for
- Helps minimize the possibility of supervisors selecting only favourite employees
- Hidden talent is often uncovered.
- However it may create unwanted competition among employees for limited advancement
Targeted internal recruitment system:
- A strategy to locate viable internal job applicants that includes elements of both open
and closed internal recruitment system allowing employees equal opportunity to apply
and HR to uncover talent.
- Large applicant pool that`s narrowed down by KSAOs, seniority, demographics and
availability of applicants
- Has three advantages: a thorough search is conducted, people have equal opportunity to
apply for postings and hidden talent is uncovered.
- However it can be very time consuming and costly.
Criteria for choice of system:
- There are several criteria before selecting internally:
1) Closed system is inexpensive however may lead to high legal costs if minorities and
women do not have equal access to jobs. Open is more costly, targeted system costs
2) Closed system is best if a manager needs someone to start immediately as it
generates the quickest response
3) Open system is more likely to identify more candidates and hidden talent is less likely
to be overlooked.
4) Some openings require very narrow and specialized KSAOs. Closed systems identify
these people quickly.
5) Open system may motivate migration of labour from jobs that are critical and difficult
6) When a system is specified in a labour agreement or contract it must be followed
7) Open system where the rules are known enhances the perception of fairness.
- Spells out the duties and requirements of a job and shows how applications can apply. - Posting may be through a bulletin board, newsletter, email or intran