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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 3100
Jamie Gruman

Chapter 1: Skill Learning Self-Awareness  Lies at the heart of the ability to master oneslef, but it is not sufficient  Self-management depends first and foremost on self-awareness  Developing self-control and clarifying priorities and goals help individuals create direction in their own lives  Effectively managing time and stress make it possible for individuals to adapt to and organize their surroundings  Techniques and methods for achieving self-knowledge have long been available – including group methods, meditation techniques, altered consciousness procedures, aromatherapy, assorted meassages, physical exercise regimens, etc.  Erich Fromm (1939) was one of the first behavioral scientists that observe the close connection between one's self-concept and one's feeling about others  Carl Rogers (1961) proposed that self-awareness and self-acceptance are pre-requeisites for psychological health, personal growth, and the ability to know and accept others. ◦ Basic human need is for self-regard  Empirical evidence exists that individuals who are more self-aware are more healthy, perform better in managerial and leadership roles and are more productive at work  We avoid personal growth because we fear finding out that we are not all that we would like to be The Sensitive Line  Refers to the point at which individuals become defensive or protective when encountering information about themselves that is inconsistent with their self-concept or when encountering pressure to alter their behavior  The more discrepant the information or the more serious its implications for your self-concept, the closer it would approach your sensitive line and you would feel a need to defend yourself against it  Example: Having a coworker judge you incompetent as a manager may cross your sensitive line if you think you have done a good job as a manager. This would be especially true if the coworker was an influential person. Your response would probably be to defend yourself against the informtion to protect the image you hold of yourself Threat-rigidity response ◦ When individuals are threatened, when they encounter uncomfortable information or when uncertainty is created, they tend to become rigid ◦ They hunker down, protect themselves, and become risk averse ◦ When they encoounter information that is a threat to their self-concept, individuals become rigid – physically and emotionally ◦ Rely on first-learned or most reinforced behavior patterns and emotions  When discrepancies in the self-image are encountered, the validity of the information or its source is denied or other kinds of defense mechanisms are used to ensure tha the self-concept remains stable  Crossing the sensitive line creates rigidity and self-preservation  In light of this defensiveness, how can increased self-knowledge and personal change ever occur? ◦ 1. Information that is verifiable, predictable, and controllable is less likely to cross the sensitive line than information without those characteristics ▪ If an individual can test the validity of the discrepant informtation, if the information is not unexpected or “out of the blue” and if there is some control over what, when and how much information is received, the feedback is more likely to be heard and accepted ◦ 2. Overcoming resistance to self-examination lies in the role other people can play in helping insight to occur. ▪ It is almost impossible to increase skill in self-awareness unless we interact with and disclose ourselves to others Self-disclosure  In order to know oneself, no amount of introspection or self-examination will suffice.  It is the key to improvement in self-awareness  A lack of self-disclosure not only inhibits self-awareness but also may affect adversely other aspects of managerial skill development  Low self-disclosures are less healthy and more self-alienated than high self-disclosers  High disclosers are liked best  Excessive or insufficient self-disclosers results in less liking and acceptance by others  Mainting a trusting relationship with someone with whom you can share is a critical prerequisite to self understanding  Enigma of self-awareness can be managed by exercising some control over when and what kind of information you receive about yourself, and by involving others in your pursuit of self-understanding  Support and feedback individuals receive from others during the process of self-disclosers, helps information contribute to greater self-awareness without crossing the sensitive line Understanding and Appreciating Individual Differences  Considerable evidence that an individuals effectivenss as a manager is closely related to his or her ability to recognize, appreciate and ultimately utilize key, fundamental differences among others  Self-knowledge will help you understand your own taken-for-granted assumptions, trigger points, sensitive line, comfort zone, strengths and weaknesses, and so forth ◦ Allow us to recognize our own special gifts and strengths and to capitalize on our talents  Being aware of, and empathetic toward the different perspectives, needs and inclinations of other people is a key part of emotional intelligence and interpersonal maturity  One key to helping individuals feel comfortable discussing ways in which they are different is by sharing a commitment to focusing on differences not distinctions  We observe differences; we create distinctions  Differences help us understand potential sources of misunderstanding between people and give us clues for how we can work together more effectively  Distinctions create social barriers between people for the express purpose of creating (or reinforcing) advantages and disadvantages ◦ Creation of distinctions destroys trust among people, even if the distinctions refer to individuals who are not present  When others feel that self-disclosing infomration could be used against them – they could be placed on the disadvantaged side of a distinction – they will be reluctant to participate in any self-discovery process, especially one that requires them to share information about their personal characteristics  Self-awareness and understanding of differences cannot occur without self-disclosers, sharing and tursting conversations  Self-knowledge requires an understanding and valuing of differences, not the creation of distinctions Important Areas of Self-Awareness  Five of the most critical areas of self-awareness that have been found to be key developing successful management: ◦ Emotional intelligence ◦ Personal values ◦ Cognitive style ◦ Oritentation toward change ◦ Core self-evaluation  These areas represent a limited set of factors, of course, but they have been found to be among the most important predictors of various aspects of effective managerial performance – including ◦ Achieving life success ◦ Performing effectively in teams ◦ Competent decision making ◦ Life-long learning and development ◦ Creativity ◦ Communication competency ◦ Job satisfcation ◦ Job performance Emotional Intelligence: The ability to mange oneself and to manage relationships with others – has been identified as among the most important factors in accounting for success in leaders and managers  Emotional intelligence competencies, including self-awareness, were twice as important in contributing to excellence as cognitive intelligence and expertise  Identifies the extent to which people are able to recognize and contorl their own emotions, as well as to recognize and respond appropriately to the emotions of others  Bar-Ons EQ-i measure – a self report instrument that defines emotional intelligence as an aray of non- cognitive skills ◦ A behavioral assessment that defines emotional intelligence as “a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide ones thinking and action”  360-degree assessment defines emotional intelligence as “the compostie set of capabilities that enable a person to manage himself or herself and others” have been scientifically validate (too lengthy)  Differentiating between emotional intelligence and emotional competence ◦ Emotional Intelligence: The ability to diagnose, understand and manage emotional cues ◦ Emotional Competence: The non-cognitive capabilities and skills – including social skills – that affect human functioning  Emotionall intelligence refers to: ◦ 1. The ability to diagnose and recognize your own emotions ◦ 2. The ability to control your emotions ◦ 3. The ability to recognize and diagnose the emotions displayed by others ◦ 4. The ability to respond appropriately to these emotional cues  Can be enhanced by practice  Personal Values: The core of the dynamics of behavior and play so large a part in unifying personality  Identifies an individuals basic standards about what is good and bad, worthwhile and worthless, desireable and undesirable, true and false, moral and immoral  Basis of crucial decisions, life directions, and personal tastes  Help define our morality and our conceptions of what is “good”  Other attitudes, orientations and behaviors arise out of an individuals values  Two major types of values are considered: ◦ Instrumental ◦ Terminal Instrumental Values  Prescribe desirable standards of conduct or methods for attaining an end  Two types of instrumental values: ◦ Morality ◦ Competence  Violating moral values causes feelings of guilt  Violating competence values brings about feelings of shame  Holds high on ambiition and sense of accomplishments Terminal Values  Presrcribe desirable ends or goals for the individual  Either personal (ec. Peace of mind) or social (ex. World peace) Cognitive Style: The manner in which individuals gather and process information  Individual differences in cognitive style influence perception, learning, problem solving, decision making, communication and creativity  Identifies individual thought processes perceptions and methods of acquiring and storing information  Determines not only what kind of information is received by an individual, but how that individual interprets, judges, and responds to the information Orientation Toward Change: Focuses on the methods people use to cope with change in their environement  Two important dimensions: ◦ Locus of control ◦ Intolerance of ambiguity  Identifies the adaptability of individuals  The extent to which individuals are tolerant of ambiguous, uncertain conditions, and the extent to which they are inclined to accept personal responsibility for their actions under changing conditions Tolerance of Ambiguity  To the extent to which individuals are threatened by or have difficulty coping with situations that are ambiguous, where change occurs rapidly or unpredictably, where information Is inadequate or unclear, or where complexity exists  H
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