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University of Guelph
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 3100
Jamie Gruman

Chapter 9: Building Effective Teams and Teamwork Developing Teams and Teamwork 1. Effective teams have interdependent members 2. Effective teams help members be more efficient working together than alone 3. Effective teams function so well that they create their own magnetism 4. Effective teams do not always have the same leader 5. In effective teams, members care for and nurture one another 6. Effective teams have members who cheer for and bolster the leader, and vice versa 7. Effective teams have a high level of trust among members Advantages of Teams  Improves productivity quality and morale when teams are utilized  Reduce turnover  Reduce defects  Found that among firms that were actively using teams, both organizational and individual effectiveness were above average and improving in virtually all categories of performance  How best to form and lead teams include: ◦ Composition (e.g. Heterogeneity of members, size of the team, familiarity among team members) ◦ Team motivation (e.g. Team potency, team goals, team feedback) ◦ Team type (e.g. Virtual teams, cockpit crews, quality circles) ◦ Team structure (e.g. Team member autonomy, team norms, team decision-making processes) Disadvantage of Teams  Can take too long to make decisions  Can drive out effective action by becoming to insular  Can create confusion, conflict and frustration Team Development Stage Explanation Forming The team is faced with the need to become acquainted with its members, its purpose and its boundaries. Relationships must be formed and trust established. Clarity of direction is needed from team leaders. Questions: Who are these people? Who is going to lead? What is supposed to happen? Interpersonal relationships that predominate in this stage are: Silence, self-consciousness, dependence Kind of task issues: Establishing trust, relationships with leaders, clarity of purpose, norms, procedures, expectations Norming The team is faced with creating cohesion and unity, differentiating roles, identifying expectations for members, and enhancing commitment. Providing supportive feedback and fostering commitment to a vision are needed from team leaders. Questions: How can I best get along with everyone else? How can I show my support to others? How can I fit in? Interpersonal relationships that most characterize team members include: Cooperativeness, Conformity to standards and expectations, Heightened interpersonal attractions, Ignoring disagreements Team takes repsonsibility for ensuring that it: Maintains unity and cohesion, facilitates participation and empowerment, show support to team members, provide feedback Groupthink develops in the norming stage due to: Illusion of invulnerability, shared stereotypes, rationalization, illusion of morality, direct pressure Addressing Groupthink: Critical evaluators, open discussion, subgroups Storming The team is faced with disagreements, counterdependence, and the need to manage conflict. Challenges include violations of team norms and expectations and overcoming groupthink. Focusing on process improvement, recognizing team achievement, and fostering win/win relationships are needed from team leaders. Questions: How will we handle dissension? How can we make decisions amidst disagreements? How will we communicate negative information? Members take sides and cease to not care about one another leading to: Coalitions or cliques being formed, competition among team members, disagreement with the leader, challenging others point of view Main task issues to be addressed by the team include: Managing conflict, legitimizing productive expressions of individuality, Turning counterdependence into interdependence, fostering consensus-building processes Roles may actually foster team cohesion and productivity rather than conflict, if the team: Maintains visibility of vision and superodinate goals, reinforces team commitment with recognition of team-lelve performance, identifies an external enemeny as a target for competition Four-step process: 1. Learn. Core principles, vision and values were taught 2.Apply. Action plans were formed and an improvement agenda was implemented 3. Teach. The principles and successful experiences were taugh to the next-lower family team 4. Inspect. The performance and action plans of this lower family team were measured and monitored Performing The team is faced with the need for continuous improvement, innovation, speed, and capitalizing on core competencies. Sponsoring team members new ideas, orchestrating their implementation, and fostering extraordinary performance are needed from the team leaders Common issues that tend to dominate: How can we help our members thrive? How can we foster continous improvement and creativity? How can we build on our core competence? Interpersonal relationships of team members are characterized by: High mutual trust, unconditional commitment to the team, mutual training and development, enterpreneurship Teams adopt a set of beahviours that help foster this stage which includes: Enhancing flourishing relationships, Encouraging positive deviance, Fostering innovation, Capitalizing on core competence Leading Teams  Ways to create the elements of a highly effective team – interdependence, efficiency, magnetism, shared responsibility, positive energy, mutual encouragement, and trust 1. Developing Credibility  Demonstrating integrity, representing authenticity, and displaying congruence  Being clear and consistent about what they want to achievement  Creating positive energy by being optimistic and complimentary  Building a base of agreement among team members before moving on, with a focus on task accomplishment  Managing agreement and disagreement among team members by using one-sided and two- sided argument appropriately – one-sided in situations when all team members agree, two- sided when consensus is not pre-existing  Encouraging and coaching team members to help them improve  Sharing information about the team itself, providing perspective from external sources, and encouraging participation 2. Establish Smart Goals and Everest Goals  SMART Goals: ◦ Specific - The goal is clear, and precise targets and standards are identified ◦ Measureable – The goal can bea ssessed and quantified. The extent to which the goal has been achieved is obvious ◦ Aligned – The goal is supportive of and consistent with the goals of the broader organization. People are not pursuing their own objectives independent of their team ◦ Realistic – While being difficult and causing performance to stretch, the goal is not foolhardy or a fantasy ◦ Time-bound –An end point is identified or a completion date established so that goal achievement is not open-ended  Everest Goal ◦ Capture deep inner commitment of people beacuse they are tied to something about which, they care deeply ◦ Require supreme effort and a passionate commitment ◦ Depend on complete honesty and authenticity, since achieving them cannot be accomplished by trying to be something artificial or false ◦ Motivate learning and wisdom, allowing people to learn new things about themselves and their capabilities in the pursuit of the goal ◦ Represents ultimate achievement, an extraordinaryaccomplishments, and beyond the norm outcome ◦ Serves as a unifying focal point; build team spirit; engages people; and creates positive energy and excitement ◦ Goals often connected to: ▪ (1) Producing a human benefit for others ▪ (2)Acore personal value ▪ (3) Producing an impact that extends beyond the immediate, even over a lifetime ▪ (4) Virtues such as love, faith, integrity, compassion, hope ▪ (5) producing a ripple effect, so that the achievement is reproduced over and over again Team Membership Main Skills Advantage
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