HROB 4000 Chapter week 5: HROB 4000 – week 5

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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 4000
Nita Chhinzer

HROB 4000 – week 5 • Self-actualization: Development of one’s full potential. • Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: A theoretical model that organizes human needs according to priority level. The model groups needs into five categories: physiological, safety, belonging and love, esteem, and self-actualization. People are motivated first to satisfy physiological and safety needs; only after those needs have been satisfied are they motivated by the higher needs of belonging, esteem, and self- actualization. • Theory X: According to Douglas McGregor, a management philosophy arising from a widespread belief on the part of managers that subordinates are passive and lazy, have little ambition, prefer to be led, and resist change. Consequently, external controls are necessary to ensure that they do their jobs. • Theory Y: McGregor’s alternative to Theory X, which promotes the idea that employees would prefer to do a good job if given the authority to direct themselves. According to McGregor, “the essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts toward organizational rewards” (1960, p. 61). • safety climate, • Role overload and transformational leadership are predictors of safety behaviour • safety climate and safety performance were positively related to both individual safety knowledge and safety motivation • service climate • leadership fosters service climate • Increases ee engagement, CSAT, reduces exhaustion • justice climate • (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational) • Increases org commitment, CSAT, decreases turnover • leadership climate • LMX differentiation impacts withdrawal behaviours • Leadership climate is the biggest predictor of group level efficacy • Chapter 6 – People and Organizations (HR Frame) - Apple, along with its major technological advancements, have garnered negative attention around the globe for their concern for the offshore workers who make its products noting harsh conditions, onerous work environments, excessive overtime etc. - Its people management evoked centuries-old images of sacrificing people for profits and reinforced popular stereotypes of bosses as heartless and insensitive HUMAN RESOURCE ASSUMPTIONS - One side of the debate sees individuals as object tools, important not so much in themselves as in what they can do for the organization, while the opposing camp holds that the needs of individuals and organizations can be aligned, engaging people’s talent and energy while the enterprise profits Core assumptions: 1. Organizations exist to serve human needs rather than the converse 2. People and organizations need each other. Organizations need ideas, energy, and talent; people need careers, salaries, and opportunities 3. When the fit between individual and system is poor, one or both suffer. Individuals are exploited or exploit the organization – or both become victim 4. A good fit benefits both. Individuals find meaningful and satisfying work, and organizations get the talent and energy they need to succeed Fit is a function of three things: how well an organization responds to individual desires for useful work; how well jobs let employees express their skills and sense of self; and how well work fulfills individual financial and lifestyle needs HUMAN NEEDS - Needs are a central element in everyday psychology “We set our goal to be the very best at serving the needs of our customers. Every action we take should be made with this in mind. We also believe that we can achieve our goal only if we fulfill the needs of our own people” - Common sense tells us that we all have needs, but identifying what needs we have is more elusive - Conditions or elements in the environment allow people to survive and grow “Nature”  posits that certain psychological needs are essential to being human “Nurture”  suggests that people are so shaped by environment, socialization, and culture that is fruitless to talk about common psychic needs - The nature-nurture seesaw suggests a more useful way to think about human needs as being defined by a genetic predisposition to prefer some experiences over others - Because genetic instructions cannot anticipate all situations, both the form and expression of each person’s inborn needs are significantly tailored by experiences after birth WORK AND MOTIVATION: A BRIEF TOUR Performance = Ability x Motivation - Theories of motivation seek to explain the desire part of that formula - Money and financial rewards are powerful incentives Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - One of the oldest and most influential of the models was developed by Abraham Maslow - Theory is hard to test - Widely accepted and enormously influential in managerial practice Theory X and Theory Y - Most managers harbour “Theory X” assumptions, believing that subordinates are passive and lazy, have little ambition, prefer to be led, and resist change Hard and Soft versions of Theory X Hard  emphasizes coercion, tight controls, threats, and punishment Soft  try to avoid conflict and keep everyone happy - If you treat people as if they’re lazy and need to be direct, they conform to your expectations Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was the foundation of Theory Y - The essential task of management is to arrange conditions so that people can achieve their own goals by best directing efforts toward organizational rewards - The more managers align organizational requirements with employee self-interest, the more they can rely on Theory Y’s principle of self-direction PERSONALITY AND ORGANIZATION - Argyris and McGregor saw person-structure conflict built into traditional principles of organizational design and management Argyris argued that employees try to stay sane by looking for ways to escape these frustrations: 1. They withdraw – through chronic absenteeism or simply by quitting 2. They stay on the job but withdraw psychologically, becoming indifferent, passive, and apathetic 3. They resist by restructuring output, deception, featherbedding, or sabotage 4. They try to climb the hierarchy to better jobs 5. They form alliances (such as labour unions) to redress the power imbalance 6. The teach their children to believe that work in unrewarding and hopes for advancement are slim - In recent years, manufacturing and service jobs have been moving offshore to low-wage enclaves around the world, continuing the search for employees who will work hard without asking for too much in return - The dominant “assembly-line” mentality enjoyed enough economic success to persist, while the frame’s influence has grown with the realization that misuse of human resources depresses profits as well as people HUMAN CAPACITY AND THE CHANGING EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT - Global competition, rapid change, and shorter product life cycles have produced a turbulent, intensely competitive world, placing an enormous premium on the ability to adapt quickly to shifts in the environment (aka. Minimize fixed human assets through downsizing, outsourcing, and using part-time and temporary employees to cope with business fluctuations) - On the other hand, some of the same global forces push in another direction – toward growing dependence on well-trained, loyal human capital (globalization and a more information-intensive economy, as well as decentralized structures promoting this type of favoured employees) Skill Shortage “organizations struggle to find people who bring the skills and qualities needed; while individuals with yesterday’s skills face dismal job prospects” - Simultaneous pressures to increase flexibility and employee skills create a vexing human resource dilemma: should an organization seek adaptability (through a downsized, outsourced part-time workforce) or loyalty (through a long-term
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