Chapter 5 - Foundations of Employee
Thursday, March 7, 2013
• Motivation refers to the forces within a person that affect his or her
direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour.
• Motivated employees are willing to exert a particular level of effort
(intensity), for a certain amount of time (persistence), toward a particular goal
• employee engagement as an individual's emotional and cognitive
(rational) motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent, and
purposive effort toward work-related goals.
• It is typically described as an emotional involvement in, commitment to, and
satisfaction with the work.
• Actively disengaged employees tend to be disruptive at work, not just
disconnected from work.
• Goal setting, employee involvement, organizational justice, communication
about the business, employee development opportunities, sufficient resources,
and an appealing company vision are some of the more commonly mentioned
influences on employee engagement.
EMPLOYEE DRIVES AND NEEDS
• drives (also called primary needs), which we define as hardwired
characteristics of the brain that attempt to keep us in balance by
• needs as goal-directed forces that people experience.
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NEEDS
• You probably wouldn't walk up to the person and demand that he or she
leave; such blunt behaviour is contrary to social norms in most cultures.
MASLOW'S NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY
• Maslow's needs hierarchy theory: a motivation theory of needs
arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a
higher need as a lower one becomes gratified.
• Developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s
• physiological (need for food, air, water, shelter, etc), safety (need for security
and stability), belongingness/love (need for interaction with and affection from
others), esteem (need for self-esteem and social esteem/status), and self-
actualization (need for self-fulfillment, realization of one's potential).
• Maslow deserves credit for bringing a more holistic, humanistic, and positive
approach to the study of human motivation.
o Holistic perspective. Maslow explained that the various needs should
be studied together (holistically) because human behaviour is typically
initiated by more than one need at the same time. o
Humanistic perspective. Maslow introduced the then-novel idea that
higher-order needs are influenced by personal and social influences, not
o Positive perspective. Maslow popularized the previously developed
concept of self-actualization, suggesting that people are naturally
motivated to reach their potential and that organizations and societies
need to be structured to help people continue and develop this
WHAT'S WRONG WITH NEEDS HIERARCHY MODELS?
• Maslow's theory ultimately failed to explain human motivation because
people don't fit into a one-size-fits-all needs hierarchy.
LEARNED NEEDS THEORY
• Psychologist David McClelland further investigated the idea that need
strength can be altered through social influences.
• Need for Achievement People with a strong need for achievement
(nAch) want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals through their own
• Need for affiliation (nAff) refers to a desire to seek approval from others,
conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation.
• Need for Power People with a high need for power (nPow) want to
exercise control over others and are concerned about maintaining their
• Learning Needs McClelland believed that needs can be learned (more
accurately, strengthened or weakened), and the training programs he
developed supported that proposition. In his achievement motivation program,
trainees wrote achievement-oriented stories and practised achievement-
oriented behaviours in business games.
• social scientists in several fields (psychology, anthropology, etc.) increasingly
agree that human beings have several hardwired drives, including social
interaction, learning, and getting ahead. One of the few theories to apply this
emerging knowledge is four-drive theory
o Drive to acquire. This is the drive to seek, take, control, and retain
objects and personal experiences.
Drive to bond. This is the drive to form social relationships and
develop mutual caring commitments with others. I
o Drive to learn. This is the drive to satisfy our curiosity, to know and
understand ourselves and the environment around us
o Drive to defend. This is the drive to protect ourselves physically and
• These four drives are innate and universal, meaning that they are hardwired
in our brains and are found in all human beings.
How Drives Influence Employee Motivation
• Four-drive theory is derived from recent neuroscience research regarding the
emotional marker process and how emotions are channeled into decisions and
behaviour • our mental skill set chooses courses of action that are acceptable to society,
consistent with our own moral compass, and seem to correct any problems or
Evaluating Four-Drive Theory
• that four-drive theory satisfied two of Maslow's criteria for motivation theory:
it is holistic (it relates to all drives, not just one or two) and humanistic (it
acknowledges the role of human thought and social influences, not just
• Four-drive theory also provides a much clearer understanding of the role of
emotional intelligence in employee motivation and behaviour.
• social norms, personal values, and past experience probably don't represent
the full set of individual characteristics that translate emotions into goal-
Practical Implications of Four-Drive Theory
• The main recommendation from four-drive theory is to ensure that individual
jobs and workplaces provide a balanced opportunity to fulfill the drives to
acquire, bond, learn, and defend.
• the workplace should offer enough opportunity to keep all four drives in
EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
• Expectancy theory, on the other hand, offers an elegant model
based on rational logic to predict the chosen direction, level, and
persistence of motivation
• we are motivated to achieve the goals with the highest expected payoff.
• an individual's effort level depends on three factors: effort-to-performance (E-
to-P) expectancy, performance-to-outcome (P-to-O) expectancy, and outcome
valences. Employee motivation is influenced by all three components of the
expectancy theory model. If any component weakens, motivation weakens.
o E-to-P expectancy. This is the individual's perceived probability that his
or her effort will result in a particular level of performance
o P-to-O expectancy. This is the perceived probability that a specific
behaviour or performance level will lead to a particular outcome.
o Outcome valences. A valence is the anticipated satisfaction or
dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome.
• An outcome valence represents a person's anticipated
satisfaction with the outcome.
EXPECTANCY THEORY IN PRACTICE
• One of the appealing characteristics of expectancy theory is that it provides
clear guidelines for increasing employee motivation.
• Increasing E-to-P Expectancies: Some companies increase this can-do
attitude by assuring employees that they have the necessary competencies,
clear role perceptions, and necessary resources to reach the desired levels of
• Increasing P-to-O Expectancies: The most obvious ways to improve P-to-O
expectancies are to measure employee performance accurately and distribute
more valued rewards to those with higher job performance. • Increasing Outcome Valences: Organizational leaders need to find ways to
individualize rewards or, where standard rewards are necessary, to identify
rewards that do not have a negative valence for some staff.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE
• organizational behaviour modification (OB Mod) and social cognitive theory.
Although these theories explain how people learn what to expect from their
actions, they are also theories of motivation because, as expectancy theory
explained, the learned expectancies affect the person's direction, intensity,
and persistence of effort.
• behaviourism, which argues that a good theory should rely exclusively on
behaviour and the environment and ignore nonobservable cognitions and
• organizational behaviour modification or OB Mod, eventually entered
organizational studies of motivation and learning.46
• A-B-Cs of OB Mod
o OB Mod attempts to