Chapter 8: Consumer Attitude (9,10.15,16)
Attitude: Is a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favourable or unfavourable
way with respect to a given object.
Attitudes are learned this means that attitudes relevant to purchase behaviour are formed as a
result of direct experience with the product, word of mouth, information acquired from others,
or exposure to mass media advertising, the Internet and various forms of direct marketing
Attitudes have a motivational quality, they might propel a consumer toward a particular
behaviour or repel the consumer away from a particular behaviour
Attitudes Have Consistency
Another characteristic of attitudes is that they are relatively consistent with the behaviour they
reflect. Attitudes are not necessarily permanent; they do change
Attitudes occur within a situation
Event or circumstance that at a particular point in time influence the relationship between an
attitude and behaviour. A specific situation can cause consumers to behave in ways seemingly
inconsistent with their attitudes.
Structure Models of Attitudes
Tricomponent Attitude Model – according to this model attitudes consist of three major
components: a cognitive component, an affective and a conative component.
Knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the
attitude object and related information from various sources. This knowledge and resulting
perceptions commonly take the form of beliefs that is the consumer believes that the attitude
object possesses various attributes and that
specific behaviour will lead to specific outcomes.
A consumers emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand constitute the affective
component of an attitude. These emotions and feelings are frequently treated by consumers
researchers as primarily evaluative in nature; that is they capture an individuals direct or
global assessment of the attitude object (extent to which an individual rates the attitude object
as good or bad)
The Conative Component
Concerned with the likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or
behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object. It is the consumers intention to
Intention to buy scales: I will buy it, I am uncertain if I will buy it etc.
Multiattribute attitude models
It portrays consumer’s attitudes with regard to an attitude (product, service, direct mail catalog,
or cause or an issue) as a function of consumers’ perception and assessment of the key
attributes or beliefs held with regard to a particular attitude.
3 models to consider
1. Attitude toward object model
Measures attitude toward a product/service category or specific brand. According to this
model, the consumer’s attitude toward a product or specific brands of a product is a function of
the presence (or absence) and evaluation of certain product specific beliefs and/or attributes.
2. Attitude toward behaviour model
Designed to capture the individual’s attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an
object rather than the attitude toward the object itself. The appeals of the attitude toward
behaviour model is that it seems to correspond somewhat more closely to actual behaviour
that does the attitude toward object model.
3. Theory of reasoned action model (TRA)
Represents a comprehensive integration of attitude components into a structure that is
designed to lead to both better explanation and better predictions of behaviour. Incorporates a
cognitive component an affective and conative component, however these are arranged in a
pattern different from that of the tricomponent model.
Theory of planned behaviour: includes an additional factor leading to intention. The construct
of perceived behavioural control (PBC) which is a consumers perception of whether the
behaviour is or is not within his or her control.
Theory of trying to consumer model: designed to account for the many cases in which the
action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempts to consume. In
trying to consume there are often personal impediments (a consumer is trying to find just the
right tie to go with a suit for under $50 or trying to lose weight but loves cookies)
Attitude toward the ad models: A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings
(affect) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in
turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand
Alter components of multiattribute models
Add a belief (under what condition?)
Highlight the importance of a belief
Increase the strength of a belief
Target normative beliefs
Change beliefs about competitors’ brands
Resolve conflicting attitudes