Chapter 3.docx

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University of Guelph
Marketing and Consumer Studies
MCS 2020
Nicole Mc Callum

Chapter 3 The Information Environment 3.1 What is Technology? -technology is not always associated with computers, software, networks -technology comes from Greek word ‘technologia’ which refers to systematic treatment of an art/craft (now usually refers to specific objects-things like tools, machines, appliances, networks or computers -in our usage, technology can refer to: a systematic approach, specific technology, and production of a useful product -when examining impact of technology, observers often separate technology into two categories: 1) Disruptive technology- upsets current order and completely redefines rules (ie. internet-net which changed the way we share information, conduct commerce, govern ourselves and communicate) SLIDES-improves products, services in radical ways, unexpected, fast movers & fast followers (eg internet) 2) Sustaining technology-improves upon already existing technology (introduction of search engines like Google and Yahoo! Made information on web more accessible) -technological determinism-view that technology causes social change and determines cultural value (suggests that technology is autonomous-can be viewed independent of human experience) SLIDES: improves products, services incrementally (revolutionaryunexpected (smart phones), evolutionary  expected(microchips & data storage)) 3.2 Information Systems -information and technology are key components of information systems -maybe able to collect vast amounts of detailed information, but if we can’t manipulate the information for our needs, then we’ve gained nothing -well-designed system needs to consider three components: People, Technology, and Information (limited system if just focuses on 2/3) -most information systems focus on the information and technology and forget about people -information systems purpose: to help us solve problems (if ignore information, people, technology it will greatly reduce ability to achieve our goals or solve our problems) SLIDES: Design considerations: 1.Informaiton 2. Technology 3. People 4. System objectives Organization: -technical definition-stable, formal, social structure that takes resources from environment and processes them to produce outputs (formal legal entity with internal rules and procedures, as well as social structure) -behavioural definition-collection of rights, privileges, obligations, and responsibilities that is delicately balanced over a period of time through conflict and conflict resolution -information systems can create business value through: productivity, structure of competition, benefits to the end customer, increase efficiency and/or effectiveness -organizational information systems: -transaction processing systems (TPS) -management information systems (MIS) -decision support system (DSS) -executive support system (ESS) aka (EIS) -enterprise resource planning system (ERP) -supply chain management system (SCM) -customer relationship management systems (CRM) -knowledge management system (KMS) Intranets- internal networks used for internal distribution of information, technology platforms, single point of access to several systems Database- collection of related data, Database Management Systems (DBMS) -key components: -entity-that which you collect data about -attribute-individual pieces of information about an entity -record- related attributes about a single entity -primary key Functions-entering data, querying data, reporting data 3.3 Efficiency + Effectiveness -information systems can help us achieve our organizational objectives or individual objectives -evaluation of information system involve
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