Chapter Summary 9

12 Pages

Marketing and Consumer Studies
Course Code
MCS 2020
M.J.D’ Elia

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Chapter 9 Security 91 Surveillancefor many people it is hard to separate privacy and securityprivacy and security are related but not opposing concepts cant have one without the othersecurity vital to all survival privacy is a human needSurveillance describes the moments where we find purposeful routine systematic and focused attention paid to personal details for the sake of control entitlement management influence or protectionSurveillance activities have a purpose they are routine and they are focused its about looking at the particular data of individuals Surveillance includes acts of facetoface monitoring and acts of electronic monitoring but it can also refer to acts of data monitoringSurveillance is not a new concept however in the Information age technology make surveillance much easier computer processes are quickly replacing monitoring people in personSurveillance is aimed at everyone not just specific individualsSurveillance is like Benthams panopticon designer of prison that optimized surveillance the guards could observe the prisoners but the prisoners couldnt observe the guardsSurveillance today very similar we have a hard time determining when were being watched and an even harder time determining who is watching us 92 The Hacker Ethic One of the major drawbacks to living in a globally connected world is internet securityWithout a central authority to oversee the internet there is no comprehensive strategy for information securityIn the 1960s the term hacker was a positive term used to describe programmers who possessed an incredible mastery of computers they were motivated by curiosity and wanted to figure out how computers and networks worked they wanted to learn more not tamper As internet and computers developed hackers began to use their knowledge for self interest ie doing illegal activities to benefit financiallyHackers fall into 2 categories White Hat Hackers experts who test information systems to ensure they are secure and Black Hat Hackers crackersattack information systems with the intent of committing a crime The Hacker ethic unspoken method of operation for hackers 1 Information should be free from cost They believed that information should be freely exchangedparticularly raw programming code Hackers were always trying to improve things so they expected unlimited access to the binary code and supplementary information that would help them do so 2 Information should be free from controlownership Hackers knew that if organizations started to control or own information then the open nature of the Internet would be compromised They felt that computing technology would help make the world a better place but only if it wasnt heavily restricted 3 Information should be free from restrictioncensorship Hackers felt that all information should be availablenothing should be offlimits Authorities should be limited in their ability to determine what information the people can haveThat was then but what about now 1 Information should be free from cost While there are huge swaths of the Internet that provide free information accessing information increasingly costs money Indeed entire business models are built around charging customers for information eg market research firms 2 Information should be free from controlownership While projects like Linux or Wikipedia show the power of providing mostly unfettered access to information there are many organizations that prefer to lock down and control their intellectual property eg Microsoft Apple 3 Information should be free from restrictioncensorship While most Western nations do not actively censor information there are many countries that do practice heavy censorship and restrict citizen access to information eg China Saudi Arabia93 Computer CrimeProblems with the Hacker Ethic 1 It is an unspoken code and thus not explicitly expressed or agreed upon 2 Codes of conduct are communal but hackers are individualistic 3 Ethics are tied to professional standards but hacking is defined by antiestablishment antiprofessional stanceBecause the hacker ethic is constantly shifting each hacker is free to decide what is right and what is wrongExamples of hacking behaviour that satisfy personal interest at the expense of the public 1 Data Diddling Hackers use remote computers to penetrate security and break into an informal system Can then copy steal or manipulate data 2 Salami slicing skimming small amounts of money from multiple accounts 3 Phreaking hacks commited against telephone networks making free long distance calls 4 Piggybacking stealing credit card or PIN numbers by spying 5 Social engineering tricking employees to gain access 6 Phishing spoofing stealing passwords through a false login page fools victims into revealing confidential information 7 Cyberstalking harassment conducted via information technology 8 Spam unsolicited electronic communication 94 Malicious Code Computer crimes can also target information systems themselvesVirus a program that infects a computer without the owners permission and attempts to copy itself to other computersViruses piggyback on other applications in order to transfer from machine to machineIncluded in each virus is a payload or attack phase this is the part of executable code that activates the impact of it varies from virus to virus
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