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MCS 2600 (65)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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University of Guelph
Marketing and Consumer Studies
MCS 2600
Lianne Foti

Chapter 4 – Consumer Motivation Motivation- driving force within individuals that impels them to action Needs- marketers don’t create needs, but make consumers more aware of needs -never fully satisfied, new needs emerge as old needs are satisfied Innate needs-born with; physiological (biogenic needs) & are needed to sustain biological life; considered primary needs (food, water, air, shelter, sex, clothing) Acquired needs-learned in response to our culture or environment (self-esteem, prestige, affection, power, learning); generally are psychological they are considered secondary needs Goals- sought-after results of motivated behaviour -success & failure influence goals (people who achieve goals set new &higher goals (levels of aspiration)) Generic goals- general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs Product-specific goals- specially branded products/services that consumers select as their goals -goals depend on: personal experience, physical capacity, prevailing cultural norms and values, goals accessibility in the physical and social environment (behave in ways they believe will help achieve goals) -needs & goals are interdependent (one can’t exist without other) -individuals are usually more aware of their physiological needs than their psychological needs Rational motives- select goals based on totally objective criteria (size, weight, price, miles per gallon) Emotional motives - select goals based on personal or subjective criteria (pride, fear, affection, status) Substitute goals- used when consumer cannot attain a specific goal they anticipate will satisfy a need -will dispel tension; may replace primary goal over time (women drinking skim milk on diet may start to prefer it) Frustration- failure to achieve a goal; some adapt, others adopt defence mechanisms to protect their ego (ie. aggression, rationalization, withdrawal, daydreaming, identification, repression, projection) Arousal of motives: ●physiological arousal- bodily needs at specific moment (person who is cold turns up heat) ● emotional arousal – sometimes day dreaming results in arousal (women who daydreams about romance may spend free time in internet single chat rooms) ●environmental arousal ●cognitive arousal- sometimes random thoughts can lead to awareness of needs Behaviourist School philosophy – behaviour is response to stimulus, elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored, and consumer does not act, but reacts Cognitive School philosophy – behaviour is directed at goal achievement, needs & past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes & beliefs Types of Systems of Needs: 1. Henry Murray’s 2
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