Chapter 6- Consumer Perception.docx

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University of Guelph
Marketing and Consumer Studies
MCS 2600
Nicole Mc Callum

Chapter 6- Consumer Perception Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli A stimulis is any unit of input to any of the senses Sensory receptors are the human organs (eyes ears nose mouth and skin) that receive sensory inputs All of these funcitons are called into play, either singly or in combination, in the purchase, use, and evaluation of consumer products The Absolute Threshold - the lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation is called the absolute threshold - the point at which a person can detect a difference between “something” and “nothing” is that persons absolute threshold for that stimulus - we often speak of “getting used to” a hot bath, cold shower, or bright sun. - as our exposure to the stimulus increases, we notice it less - in field of perception, the term adaptation refers specifically to “getting used to” certain sensations; that is, becoming accommodated to a certain level of stimulation - sensory adaptation is a problem that concerns many national advertisers, which is why they try to change their ad campaigns regularly the differential threshold - the minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli is called the differential threshold or the just noticeable difference (j.n.d.) - weber’s law states that the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different - marketers and manufacturers endeavor to determine the relevant j.n.d. for their products for 2 very different reasons o 1- so that negative changes are not readily discernible to the public o 2- so that product improvements are very apparent to customers without being wastefully extravagant - on the other hand, when It comes to price increases, less than the j.n.d. is desirable because consumers are unlikely to notice it - many marketers decrease the product quantity included in the packages, while leaving the prices unchanged - marketers often want to update their existing package designs without losing the ready recognition of consumers who have been exposed to years of cumulative advertising impact subliminal perception - stimuli that are too weak or too bried to be consciously seen or heard may nevertheless be strong enough to be perceived by one or more receptor cells- this process is called subliminal perception because the stimulus is beneath the threshold, or “limen”, of conscious awareness, though obviously not beneath the absolute threshold of the receptors involved - there is no evidence that subliminal advertising persuades people to buy goods or services elements of perception - perception is the result of two different kinds of inputs that interact to form the personal pictures- the perceptions- that each individual experiences - one type of input is physical stimuli form the outside environment; the other type of input is provided by individuals in the form of certain predispositions based on previous experience - consumers subconsciously exercise a great deal of selectivity as to which aspects of the environment (which stimuli) they perceive - which stimuli gets selected depends on two major factors in addition to the nature of the stimulus itself o 1- consumers’ previous experience as it affect their expectations o 2- their motives at the time - marketing stimuli include an enormous number of variables that affect the consumer’s perception, such as the nature of the product, its physical attributs, the package design, the brand name, the advertisements, and commercials - the position of a print ad or a commercial, and the editorial environment - expectations – people usually see what they expect to see, and what they expect to see is usually based on familiarity, previous experience, or preconditioned set of expectations - motives- oeioke tend to perceive things they need or want; the stronger the need, the greater the tendency to ignore unrelated stimuli in the environment selective exposure: consumers atively seek out messages that they find pleasant or with which they are sympathetic, and they actively avoid paintful or threatening ones selective attention: are likely to note ads for products that would satisfy their needs and disregard those in which they have no interest perceptual defence: consumers subconsciously screen out stimuli that they find phychlogically threatening, even though exposure has already taken place perceptual blocking: consumers protect themselves form being bombarded with stimuli by simple “tuning out”- blocking such stimuli from conscious awareness gestalt psychology- the principles underlying perceptual organization - three of the most basic principles of perceptual organization are figure and ground, grouping, and closure - figure and ground- figure is perceived clearer because it is well defined solid and in
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