CHAPTER 4.docx

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University of Guelph
Marketing and Consumer Studies
MCS 2600
Karen A.Gough

CHAPTER 4 - CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR CONSUMER MOTIVATION • Human needs are the basis of all modern marketing • Marketers do not create needs, although they strive to make consumers more keenly aware of unfelt or dominant needs MOTIVATION ASAPSYCHOLOGICAL FORCE • Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action o Produced by a state of tension, which exists as the result of an unfilfilled need • Individuals strive to reduce this tension through selecting goals and subsequent behaviou that they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus relieve them of the tension they feel • Needs o Every individual has innate needs - innate needs are physiological  Primary needs o Acquired needs are needs that we learn in response to our culture or environment  May include self-esteem, prestige, affection, power, and learning  Secondary needs o Motives or needs can have a positive or negative direction • Goals o Goals are the sought after results of motivated behaviour o All bejaviour is goal oriented o Generic goals are the general classes or categories of goals that consumers see as a means to fulfull their needs o Product specific goals are tailored o Individuals set goals on the basis of their personal values and they select means that they believe will help them achieve their desired goals o SELECTION OF GOALS  Goals selected by individuals depend on their personal experiences, physical capacity, prevailing cultural norms and values, and goals accessibility in the physical and social environment  Apositive goal is one toward which behaviour is directed, it is a approach object  A negative goal is one from which behaviour is directed away and is referred to as an avoidance object o INTERDEPENDENCE OF NEEDSAND GOALS  Needs and goals are interdependent, neither exists without the other RATIONALVERSUS EMOTIONAL MOTIVES • Some consumer behaviourists distinguish between so-called rational motives and emotional motives • Rationality in the marketing context, the term rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria DYNAMICS OF MOTIVATION • Motivation is a highly dynamic construct that is constantly changing in reaction to life experiences • Needs and goals change and grow in response to an individuals physical condition, environment, interactions and experiences • Some of the reasons why need-driven human activity never ceases includes: many needs are never fully satisfied, new needs emerge as old needs are satisfied, people who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves • NEEDSARE NEVERFULLY SATISFIED o Most human needs are never fully or permanently satisfied o Even more complex psychological needs are rarely fully satisfied • NEW NEEDS EMERGEAS OLD NEEDSARE SATISFIED o Some motivational theorists believe that a hierarchy of needs exists and that new, higher-order needs emerge as lower-order needs are fulfilled • SUCCESSAND FAILURE INFLUENCE GOALS o Anumber of researchers have exploredthe nature of the goals that individuals set for themselves o Concluded that individuals who successfully achieve their goals usually set new and higher goals for themselves, they raise their levels of inspiration o Nature and persistence of an individual's behaviouyr are often influenced by expectations of success or failuyre in reaching certain goals o Substitute Goals: when an individual cannot attain a specific goal or type of goals that he or she anticipates will satisfy certain needs  Although the substitute goal may not be as satisfactory as the primary goal, it may be sufficient to dispel uncomfortable tension o Frustration: failure to achieve a goal often results in feelings of frustration  Products may represent creative responses to the concept of frustration o Defense Mechanisms: people who cannot cope with frustration often mentally redefine their frustrating situations in order to protect their self-images and self- esteem  Coping individual may select a less expensive vacation trip or react with anger  Last two possibilities are respectively aggression and rationalization MULTIPLICITY OF NEEDS AND V
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