Chapter 6.docx

8 Pages

Marketing and Consumer Studies
Course Code
MCS 2600
Karen A.Gough

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Chapter 6 • Consumers act and react on the basis of their perceptions, not on the basis of objective reality • Reality is a totally personal phenomenon, based on that person's needs, wants, values, and personal experiences • Through advertising, marketers create and shape consumers' • Most effective positioning is getting consumers to believe that a given brand delivers a product or service benefit that is important to consumers SENSORY DYNAMICS OF PERCEPTION • Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world • SENSATION o Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli o Stimulus is any unit of input to any of the senses o Sensory receptors are the human organs that receive sensory inputs  Sensitivity to stimuli varies with the quality of an individuals sensory receptors and the amount of the stimuli to which he or she is exposed o As sensory input decreases, our ability to detect changes in input or intensity increases, to the point that we attain macimum sensitivity under conditions of minimal stimulation • ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD o Lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation is called the absolute threshold o The point at which a person can detect a difference between something and nothing is that person's absolute threshold for that stimulus o In the field of perception, the term adaptation refers specificially to getting used to certain sensations o Sensory adaptation is a problem that concerns many national advertisers, which is why they try to change their advertising campaigns regularly • THE DIFFERENTIALTHRESHOLD o The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli is called the differential threshold or the just noticeable difference o 19th century German scientist named Ernst Weber discovered that the j.n.d between two stimuli was not an asbolute amount, but an amount relative to the intensity of the first stimulus o Weber's Law states that the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different o MarketingApplications of the J.N.D  Weber's law has important applications in marketing  When it comes to product improvements, marketers very much want to meet or exceed the consumer's differential threshold  Marketers use the j.n.d to determine the amount of improvement they should make in their products • Less than the j.n.d is wasted effort because the improvement will not be percieved, more than the j.n.d is wasteful because it reduces the level of repeat sales  When it comes to price increases, less than the j.n.d. is desirable because consumers are unlikelyu to notice it • SUBLIMINALPERCEPTION o We spoke of people being motivated below their level of conscious awareness o People are also stimulated below their level of conscious awareness - they can perceive stimuli without being consciously aware they are doing so o Stimuli that are too weak or too brief to be consciously seen or hear may neverthless be strong enough to be perceived by one or more receptor cells o This process is called subliminal perception because the stimulus is beneath the threshold of the receptors involved o Evaluating the Effectiveness of Subliminal Persuasion  There is no evidence that subliminal advertising persuades people to buy goods or services  Acomprehensive review of the literature indicates that subliminal perception has no effect on attitudes toward products and consumption behaviour, and that most of its effects were discovered in highly articifical situations ELEMENTS OF PERCEPTION • Raw sensory input by itself does not produce or explain the coherent picture of the world that most adults possess • The study of perception is largely the study of what we subconsciously add to or subtract from raw sensory inputs to produce our own private picture of the world • Human beings are constantly bombarded with stimuli during every minute and every hour of every day • Sensory world is made up of an almost infinite number of discrete sensations that are constantly and subtly changing • One type of input is physical stimuli from the outside environment; the other type of input is provided by individuals in the form of certain predispositions based on previous experience • PERCEPTUALSELECTION o Consumers subconsciously exercise a great deal of selectivity as to which aspects of the environment they perceive o Which stimuli get selected depends on two major factors in addition to the nature of the stimulus itself: consumers previous experience as it affects their expectations, and their motives at the time o Nature of the Stimulus  Marketing stimuli includes an enormous number of variables that affect the consumers perception, such as the nature of the product, its physical attributes, the package design, the brand name, the advertisements and commercials, the position of a print ad or a commercial, and the editorial environment  Contrast is one of the most attention-compelling attributes of a stimulus o Expectations  People usually see what they expect to see, and what they expect to see is usually based on familiarity, previous experience, or preconditioned set of expectations o Motives  People tend to perceive the things they need or want; the stronger the need, the greater the tendency to ignore unrelated stimuli in the environment  Heightened awareness of stimuli that are relevant to one's needs and interests and a decreased awareness of stimuli that are irrelevant to those needs o Selective Perception  The consumers selection of stimuli from the environment is based on the interaction of expectations and motives with the stimulus itself  These factors give rise to four important concepts concernign perception • Selective exposure: consumers actively seek out messages that they find pleasant or with which they are sympathetic, and they actively avoid painful or threatening ones • Selective attention: consumers exercise a great deal of selectivity in terms of the attention they give to commercial stimuli. They have a heightened awareness of stimuli that meet their needs or interests, and minimal awareness of stimuli irrelevant to their needs • Perceptual Defense: consumers subconsciously screen out stimuli that they find psychologically threatening, even though exposure has already taken place • Perceptual blocking: consumers protect themselves from being bombarded with stimuli by simply tuning out - blocking such stimuli from conscious awareness • PERCEPTUALORGANIZATION o People who do not experience the numerous stimuli they select from the environment as separate and discrete sensations o The perceived characteristics of even the simplest stimulus are viewed as a function of the whole to which the stimulus appears to belong o Principles underlying perceptual organization are often referred to by the name Gestalt psychology o Three of the most basic principles of perceptual organization are figure and ground, grouping and closure o FIGUREAND GROUND  Stimuli that contrast with their environment are more likely to be noticed  The simplest visual illustration consists of a figure on a ground  Figure is perceived more clearly because, in contrast to its ground, it appears to be well defined, solid, and in the forefront  Common line that separates the figure and the ground is generally attributed to the figure rather than to the ground, which helps given the figure greater definition  Amarketing technique dating back to the time when TV first became a mass medium, which is experiencing tremendous growth and stems from the figure-and-gruond concept is product placement o GROUPING  Individuald tend to group stimuli so that they form a unified picture or impression  Perception of stimuli as groups or chunks of information, rather than as discrete bits of information, facilitates their memory and recall  Marketers use grouping to imply certain desired meanings in connection with their products o CLOSURE  Individuals have a need for closure, they express this need by organizing their perceptions so that they form a complete picture  If the pattern of stimuli to which they are exposed is incomplete, they tend to perceive it, nevertheless, as complete • PERCEPTUALINTERPRETATION o The preceding discussion has emphasized that perception is a personal phenomenon o People exercise selectivity as to which stimuli they perceive, and they organize these stimuli on the basis of certain psychological principles o Interpretation of stimuli is also uniquely individual, because it is based on what individuals expect to see in light of their previous experiences, the number of plausible explanat
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