Mosser.docx

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Department
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Course
MBG 2040
Professor
Tara Abraham
Semester
Fall

Description
MBG2040MosserNotesLecture1TopicstocoverDNAchromosomestructureLectures12DNAReplicationLectures35DNATranscriptionRNAProcessingLectures68RNATranslationGeneticCodeLectures910DNAMutationRepairRecombinationLectures1112BacterialGeneticsVirusesTransposonsLectures1314RegulationofGeneExpressioninProkaryotesLectures1516ScienceofmolecularbiologythBeganinmid20centurySawproofthatDNAisgeneticmaterialAlfredHersheySawelucidationofgeneticcodeieclarificationFoundmechanismsofDNAreplicationtranscriptiontranslationMathewMeselsonFranklinStahlFoundprinciplesofgeneregulationJacquesMonodDNAisgeneticmaterialChapter9pg192197LevenestetranucleotidehypothesisCompletelywrongGriffithstransformingprincipleAverysdemonstrationthatthisprinciplemustbeDNAHersheyChaseexperimentprovesthatbacteriophageDNAresponsiblefordirectingsynthesisofprogenyphageininfectedbacteriaFunctionsofGeneticMaterialReplicationGenotypicfunctionisforgeneticmaterialtostoregeneticinformationThenmustaccuratelytransmitsaidinformationfromparentstooffspringTransmissionmustoccurgenerationaftergenerationGeneexpression1PhenotypicfunctionisforgeneticmaterialtocontroldevelopmentofphenotypeoforganismGeneticmaterialdictatesgrowthoforganismbetweenvariouslifestagesfromsinglecelledzygotetomatureadultMutationEvolutionaryfunctionisforgeneticmaterialtoundergochangesProducedvariationsalloworganismstoadapttomodificationinenvironmentsoevolutioncanoccurWhatischemicalnatureofgeneticmaterialMendelshereditaryfactors1886ResponsibleforpatternsofinheritanceFactorsoccurinpairsinsomaticcellsIngametestheresoneofeachiehaploidFertilizationproduceddiploidcellsiecontaintwoofeachIn1900schromosomesinnucleusbehavedlikefactorsdescribedbyMendelDNAnucleinFirstisolatedbyMiescherin1868IsolatedleucocytesfrompusiebandagesDevelopedmethodtoisolatenucleifromcytoplasmPurifiedsubstancebyprecipitationwithacidFoundhighlevelsofnitrogenphosphorousRealizedwastotallyunrelatedtoproteinienewsubstanceDevelopedrapidmethodofisolationusingpepsintodegradeproteinsDiscoveredpresenceofnucleininothercellsDNAcomposedofnucleotidesNucleotideNitrogenousbaseAdenineAThymineTGuanineGCytosineCPentosesugarPhosphateThreesubunitslinktoformchainDeoxyadenosinemonophosphateDampLevenstetranucleotidehypothesis1910FOUNDerroneouslyiewronglythatrationofbasesinDNAis1111ATGCfournitrogenousbases4nucleotideunitrepeatedoveroverATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGCATGC2ToosimpletostoreinformationThoughtservedstructuralroleThereforeproteinsweregeneticmaterialUntil1940sgeneticmaterialwasbelievedtobeproteinUnfortunatelyproteincompositionofdifferentcellsorganismsvariedThereforenotpossibleisgeneticmaterialGriffithsTransformingPrinciple1927StreptococcuspneumoniacauseshumanpneumoniaWashugeproblematthistimeInjectionofsputumiespitfrompatientintomousecauseddeathin24hoursPolysaccharidecapsuleprotectedvirusfromhostimmunesystemUnabletostopinfectionfromoccurringRvariantsmutantsthathavelostabilitytosynthesizecapsulenonvirulentMeanscanbestoppedfrominfectingTypeIIorIIIhavedifferentcapsulesrecognizedbydifferentantiseraSerotypeColonytypeCapsuleVirulenceIIRnonvirulentsoRoughNoNomouselivesSmallIIISinfectioussoSmoothYesYesmousediesLargeSummaryofGriffithsExperimentLivingIIISMousediesLivingIIRMouselivesHeatkilledIIISMouselivesLivingIIRHeatkilledIIISMousediesLivingIIISrecoveredIIRbacteriaheritablytransformedbycomponentofIIISbacteriaWastransformingagentsomecomponentofpolysaccharidecapsuleTransformationdidntrequireincubationinmouseDawson1931transformationcouldoccurinvitrobymixinglivingIIRbacteriawithheatkilledIIISbacteriaAlloway1933transformationcouldoccurinvitrobymixinglivingIIRbacteriawithcrudeextractsofIIIScellsSystemprovidedexperimentaltooltoidentifychemicalnatureofhereditarymaterial3
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