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MUSC 2150
Shannon Carter

Unit 7: Objectives 1. Discuss the sound of northern pop vs. southern soul • Northern pop has a graceful smooth and round timbre, similar to Tin Pan Alley and Brill Building styles. • Southern soul is a strongly African American gospel, rhythm and blues inspired music centered mainly at the STAX and Atlantic labels, providing the rough, raw timbre. It was a harder edged brand of black pop and had a more openly enthusiastic emotional expression. 2. Aurally distinguish elements of these sounds in songs • Northern pop uses a coda (a short epilogue tacked onto the song) and uses the call and response throughout there songs, which connects to gospel via doo-wop and blues influences. They also include back up singers. After some time they included choreographed dance steps, and precision in the instrumental parts, especially those laying down the groove. • Southern soul includes 3-4 horns which is known as, “Memphis horns”. There is a delayed backbeat (strong beats on 2 and 4, beats are normally weak). This type of music also includes a “melisma” which is a melody with no full words under it, just a syllable. It sounds impassioned 3. Discuss the labels and producers behind the genres Motown -Gordy Jar was head of Motown records 1) He modeled releases like already popular groups from the Brill Building 2) Wanted to make cross over hits and in order to do that he had to make the Motown sound appeal to white audiences a. This was the reason why Motown became so successful - He gave song writing and production duties to specialized individuals and teams 1) This followed the Brill Building/Leiber and Stoller approach -Smokey Robinson= most successful early producer in Motown -The 1964-67 years Motown were dominated by the tremendous success of the Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland team; they were responsible for a string of hits by the Supremes, the Four Tops, and Martha and the Vandellas. The H-D-H left Motown late in 1967 over a royalty dispute. -Norman Whitfield took over as lead producer in the early 70s when the H-D-H left. Atlantic, Stax and Southern Soul 1) Atlantic in the early 60s a. Atlantic Records were based out of New York and enjoyed hits from Drifters, Coasters and Ben E King b. Started the hard sound of Black Southern Soul c. Jerry Wexler produced the majority of records in the 1960s and played a crucial role in developing southern soul throughout the decade. He worked with Bert Berns to produced a series of successful singles. d. Big difference between sweet and southern soul i. Sweet soul=elegant and restrained ii. Southern soul=enthusiastic emotional expression found in black churches Soulsville, USA: The Memphis Connection 1) Atlantic records joined up with Stax records (based in Memphis) as the relationship was beneficial for both (see pg 244) 2) Stax was founded in 1964 by Jim Stewart and Estelle Atton 3) The agreement essentially allowed Stax and Atlantic records to share artists and records 4. Discuss major artists of both types of music Motown Artists 1) The Temptations a. Athletic choreographed dance moves b. First hit ‘the way you do the things you do’ c. Smokey Robinson produced their hits 2) The Supremes a. Best representative of Motown sound b. Girl group that had tremendous success i. Diana Ross, Mary Wilson, Florence Ballard, and Betty Mcglown c. Took awhile to have success d. Once H-D-H took over production duties they had 5 number one hits in a row e. Ross and other members left the group to pursue solo careers, however the remaining band members still experienced success 3) The Supremes and H-D-H a. Teamed together in the mid 60s i. Both experienced success b. Baby Love is the best example of their sound i. Piano and drums present ii. Hand clap sound is actually created by two wooden 2x4s hit together iii. Introduction to vibraphone 4) The Four tops a. Moved to Motown in 64 b. Initially teamed with H-D-H and were the male counterparts to the Supremes i. HDH and Four tops produced a number of hits together c. Had a strong pop sound d. After HDH left Motown the Four Tops struggled to maintain same level of success 5) Martha and the Vandellas a. Formed in 1962, first in 1963 when they teamed with HDH b. First hired as secretary to Gordy but luckily filled in as a backup singer one day which impressed Gordy c. Achieved success at same time as Supremes so HDH left them to focus on the Supremes d. Sound was closer to a rhythm and blues sound i. Set the stage for Aretha Franklin 6) Marvin Gaye and Stevie Wonder a. In the beginning Motown singers were not allowed to produce music and had very little say in their sound i. Early in the 70s Gaye and Wonder would gain considerable control over their sound b. By the end of the 60s Gaye was writing and producing for other artists i. Similar to Smokey Robinsons role previously c. Experienced his most success when he released his solo project ‘whats going on’ in 1971 d. Wonder took a similar path as Gaye e. Gaye and Wonder helped Motown leave the 60s behind and experience success in the 70s Southern Artists Otis Redding and Stax 1) The most important artist to ever be signed to Stax records 2) Stax and Redding experienced success with cross over hits during 1965 due to the Stax/Atlantic agreement and subsequent exposure to a national audience 3) Redding’s songs were produced by Booker and MG and had a more authentic but less polished black sound than artists in Motown 4) Redding died in a plane crash in 1967 Wilson Pickett and the Muscle Shoals Sound 1) Pickett met Jerry Wexler in 1963 a. Pickett was unsuccessful in New York and the Moved to Stax Studios where the song ‘in the midnight hours’ was created 2) Wexler and Stax were unable to come to agreement on how to continue Picketts career as well as other artists which led to and rift between the two record labels and Wexler moving some of the Atlantic record talent, like Pickett, to Muscle Shoal Alabama 3) Wilson Pickett experienced more success in Muscle Shoal Sam and Dave, Porter and Hayes 1) Porter and Hayes were the Stax version of HDH as they worked and produced a number of the best artists in Stax 2) The duo Sam and Dave were up and coming artists signed to the Atlantic label and were offered ‘on loan’ to Stax after the falling out between the record companies a. In the past artists flowed freely between the two labels 3) Porter and Hayes combined with Sam and Dave to create a number of Rhythm and Blues hits a. This combination was very close to the relationship and success story of the Supremes and HDH Aretha Franklin (Queen of Soul) 1) Born in Memphis but raised in Detroit a. Experienced most success in New York 2) Franklin enjoyed more success than any other artist Wexler signed to Atlantic Records 3) In 1966 Wexler told Stax records to sign Franklin but they were unable to do so and in 1967 Wexler signed Franklin to Atlantic records and moved her down to Muscle Shoals, Alabama (he hoped she would follow the same path to success as Pickett) 4) After arriving in Alabama, Franklin went back to her gospel roots a. Her father was a reverend in Detroit 5) She then moved back to NY where she had her biggest hit, ‘Respect’ Motown, Atlantic, Stax, and Issues of Blackness 1) Sound of Stax/Atlantic was considered truer to black music and culture than Motown music, which was more pop oriented (made for white audiences) 2) However, Motown was owned and operated by black people while Stax/Atlantic were owned by white people and even the backup bands which played ‘black music’ were white 3) Motown became one of the most successful black owned companies in the US in the 70s 5. Intelligently consider the question of “blackness” regarding both types of music Motown, Atlantic, Stax, and Issues of Blackness • Sound of Stax/Atlantic was considered truer to black music and culture than Motown music, which was more pop oriented (made for white audiences) • Motown was criticized for not making much of its blackness because they were owned by black people • Stax was always looked at as blacker but they were actually not even black. Showing that skin colour did not effect how the music was delivered. • Motown was owned and operated by black people while Stax/Atlantic were owned by white people and even the backup bands which played ‘black music’ were white • However, after the death of Luther Kings’ songs released from Motown started focusing on racial issues Unit 9 Objectives 1. Discuss the broader historical context of 1970s America. • Most of the styles grew out of some aspect of '60s rock • The first half of the 1970s is characterized by bands still experimenting musically and testing the limits of the rock style • The second, is more controversial - as the stylistic range of rock music was expanding over the decade, the business of rock music was also growing and transforming from a business owned and run mostly by entertainment companies, into a business owned and run by multinational corporations with little previous involvement in music • According to some, most of whats best about music in the late 1960s gets progressively corrupted by big money and even bigger ego - led to Rock designed only to make money • As we consider rock in the 1970s, we are faced with at least two interpretations of this music: • One sees much classic rock as corruption, and thus tends to celebrate the underground punk scene during the first half of the decade and the emergence of punk and new wave in the second half • Another, understands classic rock almost entirely in terms of the way it has been recast by FM radio and cable television in the period since about 1990 • Both perspectives have their problems: • First, the connection to the 1960s is acknowledged but misunderstood • Second, the music that has come to represent the 1970s via classic rock radio often leaves important music out, mostly because some tracks are too long to be accommodated 2. Discuss what is meant by the “hippie aesthetic” and identify genres influenced by it. • The 1966-69 period brought important changes by focusing rock more on the album than on the 'single' • The focus of the bands was increasingly fixed on creating albums that provided a musically provocative listening experience; in short, the album was a 'trip' • Musician's expanded rock's stylistic range by incorporating elements drawn from classical music, electronic music, and jazz • Musician's also came to depend increasingly on the recording studio as a creative tool, producing records that would have been difficult to reproduce live in many cases • This all led to the "Hippie Aesthetic" in the 1970s • Basic idea; the rock musician is an artist who has a responsibility to produce sophisticated music using whatever means are at his or her disposal • The music should 'stand up' to repeated listening and the lyrics should deal with important issues or themes • Musical Prowess is especially valued; Polls sponsored by music magazines began and fans began to vote for the "best guitarist", "best vocalist" etc. • Polls like this had been common for years in jazz publications, but now Rock musicians and their fans began taking themselves and their music just as seriously • The Aesthetic is central to understanding what connects a wide variety of 1970s rock styles 3. Identify the major rock genres of the 1970s. Blues-Based British Rock • The rolling stones were especially crucial in bringing this American music style back to america and introducing it to white american-teens • Rolling stones were one of the most important groups to continue their 60's success into the 1970s • Clapton continued as a solo artist after his stint with Cream • Clapton and Jimi Hendrix had set the standard for guitar virtuosity and showmanship, mixing blues roots with psychedelic sounds and heavy rock volume - JIMMY PAGE would play an important role in continuing that aspect of rock music • He became the lead guitarist of Led Zeppelin (formerly the Yardbirds) • Led Zeppelin was among the most successful new british groups in the 1970s • They were so devoted to the idea of the album that they resisted releasing any tracks as singles • When Jimmy page first approached robert plant about forming a band, he described it as; a blend of traditional electric blues, acoustic folk, and a fair amount of experimentat
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