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Nutrition Unit 1.doc

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NUTR 1010
Rob Shearer

Nutrition Unit 1: Key Terms/ Concepts: Undernutrition- a diet that lacks energy or specific essential nutrients; is known to cause deficiency diseases such as anemia and scurvy Overnutrition- a diet that has an imbalance of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins or simply too much energy; has a strong association with diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease and it appears to play a role in some forms of cancer. Malnutrition- or “bad” nutrition, refers to both undernutrition and overnutrition Essential nutrients- cannot be manufactures by the human body at all, or not in amounts sufficient to meet the body’s needs and must come from either food in the diet or nutrient supplements water-soluble vitamins-vitamins that are soluble in water; these include vitamins B & C; some are destroyed by heat or light fat-soluble vitamins-vitamins that are not soluble in water but are soluble in fat; vitamins A,D,E,K major minerals- minerals we need to consume in amounts of at least 100mg per day and of which the total amount in our bodies is 5g; Calcium, phosphorous and magnesium play an important role in the formation and maintenance of our skeletons; sodium, potassium and chloride play critical roles in fluid balance; sulphur is recognized as a component of specific vitamins and amino acids trace minerals- minerals we need to consume in amounts less than 100mg per day and of which the total amount in our bodies is less than 5g; iron (health of our blood and oxygen transport), zinc (reproductive health and appropriate cell growth and development), copper & manganese & selenium (antioxidant function), iodine (adequate production of hormones), fluoride (reduce tooth decay) and chromium (proper metabolism of carbohydrates and fats) Organic- a substance or nutrient that contains the element carbon Inorganic- a substance or nutrient that does not contain the element carbon Macronutrients- the three ‘energy-wielding’ nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins); nutrients that our bodies need in relatively high amounts to support normal function and health Micronutrients- Nutrients needed in relatively small amounts to support normal health and body functions. Vitamins and some minerals are micronutrients Dietary reference intakes (DRIs)- a set of nutritional reference values for Canada and the United States that apply to healthy people Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)- the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the nutrient requirements of 97% to 98% of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group Adequate Intake (AI)- a recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people Tolerable Upper Intake level (UL)- the highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular like stage and gender group Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)- the average daily intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half of the health individuals in a particular life stage and gender group ~ Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)- the average dietary intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in health reference adults ~ Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)- ranges of intakes for energy sources associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients ~These are the DRIs for energy and macronutrients Unit Objectives: Explain
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